Preprint / Version 1

A Bayesian approach to interpret intervention effectiveness in strength and conditioning Part 1

A meta-analysis to derive context-specific thresholds

##article.authors##

  • Paul Swinton
  • Katherine Burgess
  • Andy Hall
  • Leon Greig
  • John Psyllas
  • Rodrigo Aspe
  • Patrick Maughan
  • Andrew Murphy

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51224/SRXIV.9

Keywords:

S&C, Evaluation, Effect size, Bayesian, Specificity

Abstract

Background Strength and conditioning (S&C) interventions comprising methods such as resistance, sprint and plyometrics are used to enhance athleticism and sports performance. The effectiveness of interventions can be evaluated using effect sizes calculated from physical outcomes and then compared to threshold values. The purpose of this large meta-analysis was to identify threshold values specific to S&C and assess factors that influence effect size distributions.

Methods An online database and hand search of published and unpublished S&C intervention studies from the 1950’s onwards was conducted. Interventions were categorized as the following: resistance, combined, plyometric, ballistic, sprint, isokinetic, concurrent, or agility. Pre- and post-intervention data comprising means and standard deviations were extracted from outcomes categorized as: maximum strength, power, explosiveness, jump, sprint, or agility. Study and participant data including intervention length, gender and training status (untrained, recreationally trained and highly trained) were also extracted. Standardised mean difference effect sizes (SMDpre) were calculated and modelled with 4-level Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis models using 0.25-, 0.5-, and 0.75-quantiles to determine small, medium, and large threshold values, respectively.

Results Data from 679 studies comprising 8904 effect sizes were included in the analyses. Threshold values obtained across the entire data were: small - 0.12 [95%CrI: 0.11 to 0.14]; medium - 0.43 [95%CrI: 0.42 to 0.45]; and large - 0.78 [95%CrI: 0.77 to 0.80]. Effect size distributions were shown to be shifted to higher values for longer duration interventions comprising maximum strength outcomes, untrained participants, females, and higher specificity coupling between training method and outcomes. Results from analyses were synthesised to provide updated threshold values to interpret effectiveness.

Conclusions The effectiveness of S&C interventions are influenced by a range of factors creating systematic shifts in SMDpre values. It is recommended that researchers and practitioners use the S&C specific threshold values presented instead of Cohen’s generic values, with scope provided for adjustment based on relevant factors.

References

Weldon A, Duncan MJ, Turner A, Sampaio J, Noon M, Wong D, Lai VW. Contemporary practices of strength and conditioning coaches in professional soccer. Biology of Sport. 2020;38(3):377-90. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2021.99328.

Weldon A, Duncan MJ, Turner A, Christie CJ, Pang CM. Contemporary practices of strength and conditioning coaches in professional cricket. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2021;16(3):585-600. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120977472.

Suchomel TJ, Nimphius S, Stone MH. The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance. Sports Medicine. 2016;46(10):1419-49.

Swinton PA, Lloyd R, Keogh JW, Agouris I, Stewart AD. Regression models of sprint, vertical jump, and change of direction performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2014;28(7):1839-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0486-0.

Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Flanagan SD, Shurley JP, Todd JS, Todd TC. Understanding the science of resistance training: an evolutionary perspective. Sports Medicine. 2017;47(12):2415-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0779-y.

Ramirez-Campillo R, Álvarez C, García-Hermoso A, Ramírez-Vélez R, Gentil P, Asadi A, Chaabene H, Moran J, Meylan C, García-de-Alcaraz A, Sanchez-Sanchez J. Methodological characteristics and future directions for plyometric jump training research: a scoping review. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(5):1059-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279- 018-0870-z.

Hecksteden A, Faude O, Meyer T, Donath L. How to construct, conduct and analyze an exercise training study?. Frontiers in Physiology. 2018;9:1007. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01007.

Nimphius S, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Relationship between strength, power, speed, and change of direction performance of female softball players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2010;24(4):885-95. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d4d41d.

Blackburn JR, Morrissey MC. The relationship between open and closed kinetic chain strength of the lower limb and jumping performance. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 1998;27(6):430-5. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1998.27.6.430.

Nuzzo JL, McBride JM, Cormie P, McCaulley GO. Relationship between countermovement jump performance and multijoint isometric and dynamic tests of strength. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(3):699-707. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d5eda.

Stone MH, O'Bryant HS, McCoy L, Coglianese R, Lehmkuhl MA, Schilling B. Power and maximum strength relationships during performance of dynamic and static weighted jumps. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2003;17(1):140-7. 10.1519/1533- https://doi.org/4287(2003)017<0140:pamsrd>2.0.co;2.

Wisløff U, Castagna C, Helgerud J, Jones R, Hoff J. Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004;38(3):285-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.002071.

Brearley S, Bishop C. Transfer of training: How specific should we be? Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2019;41(3):97-109. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000450.

Suarez DG, Wagle JP, Cunanan AJ, Sausaman RW, Stone MH. Dynamic correspondence of resistance training to sport: a brief review. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2019;41(4):80-8. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000458.

Issurin VB. Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application. Sports Medicine. 2013;43(8):675-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0049-6.

Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004;36(4):674-88. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000121945.36635.61.

Bosch F, Cook K. Strength training and coordination: an integrative approach. Rotterdam: 2010 Publishers; 2015.

Wilson GJ, Lyttle AD, Ostrowski KJ, Murphy AJ. Assessing dynamic performance: A comparison of rate of force development tests. J Strength Cond Res. 1995;9(3):176-81.

Cronin JB, Hansen KT. Strength and power predictors of sports speed. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(2):349-57. https://doi.org/10.1519/14323.1.

Peterson MD, Alvar BA, Rhea MR. The contribution of maximal force production to explosive movement among young collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2006;20(4):867-73. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-18695.1.

West DJ, Owen NJ, Jones MR, Bracken RM, Cook CJ, Cunningham DJ, Shearer DA, Finn CV, Newton RU, Crewther BT, Kilduff LP. Relationships between force-time characteristics of the isometric midthigh pull and dynamic performance in professional rugby league players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2011;25(11):3070-5. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318212dcd5.

Brughelli M, Cronin J, Levin G, Chaouachi A. Understanding change of direction ability in sport. Sports Medicine. 2008;38(12):1045-63. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256- 200838120-00007.

Bates BT, Zhang SO, Dufek JS, Chen FC. The effects of sample size and variability on the correlation coefficient. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1996;28(3):386-91. https://doi.org/ 10.1097/00005768-199603000-00015.

Harris NK, Cronin JB, Hopkins WG, Hansen KT. Squat jump training at maximal power loads vs. heavy loads: effect on sprint ability. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(6):1742-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318187458a.

Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Schultz AB, Knight TJ, de Jonge XA. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power

in field sport athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(6):1539-50. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318234e8a0.

de Villarreal ES, Requena B, Izquierdo M, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ. Enhancing sprint and strength performance: combined versus maximal power, traditional heavy-resistance and plyometric training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2013;16(2):146-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.05.007.

Morin JB, Petrakos G, Jiménez-Reyes P, Brown SR, Samozino P, Cross MR. Very-heavy sled training for improving horizontal-force output in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2017;12(6):840-4. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0444.

Rodríguez-Rosell D, Torres-Torrelo J, Franco-Márquez F, González-Suárez JM, González-Badillo JJ. Effects of light-load maximal lifting velocity weight training vs. combined weight training and plyometrics on sprint, vertical jump and strength performance in adult soccer players. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport. 2017;20(7):695-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.010.

Rhea MR, Alvar BA, Burkett LN, Ball SD. A meta-analysis to determine the dose response for strength development. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003;35(3):456-64. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000053727.63505.D4.

Rhea MR. Determining the magnitude of treatment effects in strength training research through the use of the effect size. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18:918-20. https://doi.org/10.1519/14403.1.

Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Applications of the dose-response for muscular strength development: Are view of meta-analytic efficacy and reliability for designing training prescription. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(4):950-8. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-16874.1.

Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Maximizing strength development in athletes: a meta- analysis to determine the dose-response relationship. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18(2):377-82. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-12842.1.

Rhea MR, Alvar BA, Burkett LN. Single versus multiple sets for strength: a meta-analysis to address the controversy. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2002;73(4):485-8. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-12842.1.

Rhea MR, Alderman BL. A meta-analysis of periodized versus nonperiodized strength and power training programs. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2004;75(4):413-22. https://doi.org/0.1080/02701367.2004.10609174.

Caldwell A, Vigotsky AD. 2020. A case against default effect sizes in sport and exercise science. PeerJ 8:e10314 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10314.

Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Second Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate; 1988.

Brydges CR. Effect size guidelines, sample size calculations, and statistical power in gerontology. Innovation in Aging. 2019;3(4):igz036. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igz036.

Paterson TA, Harms PD, Steel P, Credé M. An assessment of the magnitude of effect sizes: Evidence from 30 years of meta-analysis in management. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. 2016;23(1):66-81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051815614321.

Gignac GE, Szodorai ET. Effect size guidelines for individual differences researchers. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;102:74-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.069.

Lovakov A, Agadullina, ER. Empirically derived guidelines for effect size interpretation in social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology. 2021;00:1-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2752.

Quintana DS. Statistical considerations for reporting and planning heart rate variability case‐control studies. Psychophysiology. 2017;54(3):344-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12798.

Rubio-Aparicio M, Marin-Martinez F, Sanchez-Meca J, Lopez-Lopez JA. A methodological review of meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychology treatments. Behavior Research Methods. 2018;50(5):2057-73. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0973-8.

Kraft MA. Interpreting effect sizes of education interventions. Educational Researcher. 2020;49(4):241-53. ttps://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X20912798.

Schäfer T, Schwarz MA. The meaningfulness of effect sizes in psychological research: Differences between sub-disciplines and the impact of potential biases. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10:813. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00813.

Kruschke JK, Liddell TM. The Bayesian New Statistics: Hypothesis testing, estimation, meta-analysis, and power analysis from a Bayesian perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. 2018;25(1):178-206. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1221-4.

Morris SB, DeShon RP. Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs. Psychological Methods. 2002;7(1):105-25. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.7.1.105.

Hedges LV. Estimation of effect size from a series of independent experiments. Psychological Bulletin. 1982;92(2):490-99. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.92.2.490.

Hox, JJ, Moerbeek M, Van de Schoot R. Multilevel Analysis. Techniques and applications. 3rd edition. 2018. Routledge.

Gelman A. Prior distributions for variance parameters in hierarchical models. Bayesian Analysis. 2006;1(3):515-34.

Bürkner PC. brms: An R package for Bayesian multilevel models using Stan. Journal of Statistical Software. 2017;80(1):1-28. https://doi.org/ 10.18637/jss.v080.i01.

Verardi V, Vermandele C. Univariate and multivariate outlier identification for skewed or heavy-tailed distributions. The Stata Journal. 2018;18(3):517-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X1801800303.

Gelman A, Carlin JB, Stern HS, Rubin DB. Bayesian Data Analysis: Taylor & Francis; 2014.

Stone MH, Collins D, Plisk S, Haff G, Stone ME. Training principles: Evaluation of modes and methods of resistance training. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2000;22(3):65-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140208522788.

Appleby B, Newton RU, Cormie P. Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional rugby union players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(9):2538-46. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f8b86.

Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength- trained and untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003;89(6):555-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0833-3.

Mikecz R. Interviewing elites: Addressing methodological issues. Qualitative Inquiry. 2012;18(6):482-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800412442818.

Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Van Every DW, Plotkin DL. Loading recommendations for muscle strength, hypertrophy, and local endurance: A re-examination of the repetition continuum. 2021;9(2): https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9020032.

Ratamess NA, Beller NA, Gonzalez AM, Spatz GE, Hoffman JR, Ross RE, Faigenbaum AD, Kang J. The effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training on maximal isokinetic and dynamic strength and local muscular endurance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2016;15(1):34-40.

Behm DG, Sale DG. Velocity specificity of resistance training. Sports Medicine. 1993;15(6):374-388. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199315060-00003.

Gentil P, Del Vecchio FB, Paoli A, Schoenfeld BJ, Bottaro M. Isokinetic dynamometry and 1RM tests produce conflicting results for assessing alterations in muscle strength. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2017;56(1):19-27. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0019.

Sheppard JM, Young WB. Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2006;24(9):919-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457109.

Nimphius S, Callaghan SJ, Bezodis NE, Lockie RG. Change of direction and agility tests: Challenging our current measures of performance. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2018;40(1):26-38. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000309.

Turner AN, Comfort P, McMahon J, Bishop C, Chavda S, Read P, Mundy P, Lake J. Developing powerful athletes Part 2: Practical applications. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2021;43(1):23-31. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000544.

Young WB. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2006;1(2):74-83. https://doi.org/ 10.1123/ijspp.1.2.74.

Maffiuletti NA, Aagaard P, Blazevich AJ, Folland J, Tillin N, Duchateau J. Rate of force development: physiological and methodological considerations. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016;116(6):1091-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3346-6.

Turner AN, Comfort P, McMahon J, Bishop C, Chavda S, Read P, Mundy P, Lake J. Developing powerful athletes, Part 1: mechanical underpinnings. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2020;42(3):30-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000543.

Winter EM, Abt G, Brookes FC, Challis JH, Fowler NE, Knudson DV, Knuttgen HG, Kraemer WJ, Lane AM, Van Mechelen W, Morton RH. Misuse of “power” and other mechanical terms in sport and exercise science research. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2016;30(1):292-300. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001101.

Hernández-Davó JL, Sabido R. Rate of force development: reliability, improvements and influence on performance. A review. European Journal of Human Movement. 2014;33:46- 69.

Haff GG, Ruben RP, Lider J, Twine C, Cormie P. A comparison of methods for determining the rate of force development during isometric midthigh clean pulls. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2015;29(2):386-95. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000705.

Morin JB, Slawinski J, Dorel S, Couturier A, Samozino P, Brughelli M, Rabita G. Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: push more, brake less? Journal of Biomechanics. 2015;48(12):3149-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.009.

Rumpf MC, Lockie RG, Cronin JB, Jalilvand F. Effect of different sprint training methods on sprint performance over various distances: a brief review. Journal of Strength & Conditioning research. 2016;30(6):1767-85. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001245.

Haugen T, McGhie D, Ettema G. Sprint running: From fundamental mechanics to practice—A review. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2019;119(6):1273-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04139-0.

Nicholson B, Dinsdale A, Jones B, Till K. The Training of Short Distance Sprint Performance in Football Code Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine. 2020;51:1179-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01372-y.

Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P. Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2011;43(9):1680-8. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318216ea37.

Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012;112(11):3921-30. https://doi.org/0.1249/MSS.0b013e318216ea37.

Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Takai Y, Salo AI. How sprinters accelerate beyond the velocity plateau of soccer players: Waveform analysis of ground reaction forces. Scandinavian

Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2018;28(12):2527-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13302.

Mann R, Murphy A. The mechanics of sprinting and hurdling. Long Beach: Ralph V. Mann; 2018.

Cronin J, Ogden T, Lawton T, Brughelli M. Does increasing maximal strength improve sprint running performance? Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2007;29(3):86-95. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4295(2007)29[86:DIMSIS]2.0.CO;2.

Harris NK, Cronin JB, Hopkins WG, Hansen KT. Squat jump training at maximal power loads vs. heavy loads: effect on sprint ability. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(6):1742-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318187458a.

Comfort P, Haigh A, Matthews MJ. Are changes in maximal squat strength during preseason training reflected in changes in sprint performance in rugby league players?. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(3):772-6. https://doi.org/ 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822a5cbf.

Alcaraz PE, Palao JM, Elvira JL. Determining the optimal load for resisted sprint training with sled towing. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009;23(2):480-5. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318198f92c.

Petrakos G, Morin JB, Egan B. Resisted sled sprint training to improve sprint performance: a systematic review. Sports Medicine. 2016;46(3):381-400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0422-8.

Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Brown SR, Morin JB. Optimal loading for maximizing power during sled-resisted sprinting. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2017;12(8):1069-77. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016- 0362

Morin JB, Petrakos G, Jiménez-Reyes P, Brown SR, Samozino P, Cross MR. Very-heavy sled training for improving horizontal-force output in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2017;12(6):840-4. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0444.

Alcaraz PE, Carlos-Vivas J, Oponjuru BO, Martinez-Rodriguez A. The effectiveness of resisted sled training (RST) for sprint performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(9):2143-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0947-8.

Baar K. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training. Sports Medicine. 2014;44(2):117-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0252-0.

Fyfe JJ, Bishop DJ, Stepto NK. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Sports medicine. 2014;44(6):743-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0162-1.

Nader GA. Concurrent strength and endurance training: From molecules to man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006;38(11):1965-1970. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000233795.39282.33.

Fyfe JJ, Loenneke JP. Interpreting adaptation to concurrent compared with single-mode exercise training: some methodological considerations. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(2):289- 97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0812-1.

Petré H, Hemmingsson E, Rosdahl H, Psilander N. Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2021;51:991-1010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01426-9.

Laird RH, Elmer DJ, Barberio MD, Salom LP, Lee KA, Pascoe DD. Evaluation of Performance Improvements After Either Resistance Training or Sprint Interval–Based Concurrent Training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2016;30(11):3057-65. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001412.

Robineau J, Lacome M, Piscione J, Bigard X, Babault N. Concurrent training in rugby sevens: effects of high-intensity interval exercises. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2017;12(3):336-44. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015- 0370.

Hickson RC. Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1980;45(2):255-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00421333.

Kraemer WJ, Patton JF, Gordon SE, Harman EA, Deschenes MR, Reynolds KA, Newton RU, Triplett NT, Dziados JE. Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1995;78(3):976-89. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1995.78.3.976

Downloads

Posted

2021-09-07