Development of Moral Disengagement and Self-Regulatory Efficacy Assessments Relevant to Doping in Sport and Exercise
Keywords:anticipated guilt, empathy, measurement, performance enhancing drugs
Objectives: To develop Moral Disengagement (MD) and Self-Regulatory Efficacy (SRE) instruments relevant to doping in sport and exercise and provide evidence for their validity and reliability. Design: Cross-sectional, correlational Methods: Data were collected from male and female team- and individual-sport athletes and corporate- and hardcore-gym exercisers. Two samples (nsample 1 = 318; nsample 2 = 300) were utilized in instrument development and score validation and another (nsample 3 = 101) in examining test-retest reliability. Samples 1 and 2 responded to the newly developed items alongside others assessing theoretically-related variables, whereas Sample 3 completed the new instruments on two separate occasions. Results: Factor analyses identified the final items and dimensional structures for the Doping Moral Disengagement Scale (DMDS), Doping Moral Disengagement Scale–Short (DMDS–S) and Doping Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale (DSRES). The DMDS has six lower- and one higher-order factor, whereas the DMDS-S and DSRES are unidimensional. These structures were invariant by sex and sport/exercise context. Evidence supporting external validity and test-retest reliability was also provided. Conclusion: This research developed and provided evidence of score validity and internal consistency for three instruments relevant to doping in sport and exercise.
Copyright (c) 2017 Ian Boardley, Alan L. Smith, John P. Mills, Jonathan Grix, Ceri Wynne, Luke Wilkins
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.