Exercise Identity and Physical Activity Behavior During Late Adolescence
A Four Wave Cross-lagged Panel Model
Keywords:prospective cohort study, high school, youth, structural equation modeling, self-concept, emerging adulthood
Research has shown that physical activity behavior tends to decline across adolescence before stabilizing in adulthood. Identifying salient factors underlying these behavioral changes is therefore imperative for informing intervention development. This study explored the temporal nature of the relationship between exercise identity and physical activity behavior during the transition out of high school. An analysis of data from the Application of integrated Approaches to understanding Physical activity during the Transition to emerging adulthood (ADAPT) prospective cohort study was conducted, involving 1,451 Canadian adolescents (Mage = 15.93 ± 0.53 years; 52.4% female). Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form to report weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and an abbreviated version of the Exercise Identity Scale yearly for four years beginning in Grade 11. A four-wave cross-lagged panel model was used to test bi-directional associations between exercise identity and physical activity behavior. Significant auto-regressive effects for exercise identity and physical activity were observed across all four time points. Significant positive cross-lagged paths were observed for exercise identity predicting future physical activity at all time points; however, none of the cross-lagged paths with physical activity predicting future exercise identity were significant. Collectively, these findings support existing theory that emphasizes the role that identity plays in physical activity behavior. Interventions seeking to attenuate the physical activity declines typically observed during the transition to emerging adulthood should therefore consider adopting behavior change techniques that target identity, as it appears to be an important psychological determinant underlying future physical activity engagement.
Anderson, D. F., & Cychosz, C. M. (1994). Development of an exercise identity scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(3), 747–751. https://doi.org/10.1177/003151259407800313
Baribeau, D. A., Vigod, S., Brittain, H., Vaillancourt, T., Szatmari, P., & Pullenayegum, E. (2022). Application of transactional (cross-lagged panel) models in mental health research: An introduction and review of methodological considerations. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(3), 124.
Biddle, S. J., Ciaccioni, S., Thomas, G., & Vergeer, I. (2019). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: An updated review of reviews and an analysis of causality. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 146–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.011
Booth, M. (2000). Assessment of physical activity: An international perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(2), 114–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.11082794
Brown, D., & Meca, A. (2022). An examination of the psychometric properties of the Exercise Identity Scale and its adaptation to physical activity. SportRχiv.
Burke, P. J. (2006). Identity change. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69(1), 81–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/019027250606900106
Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity Theory. Oxford University Press.
Cardinal, B. J. (1997). Effects of behavioral monitoring on physical activity and psychosocial determinants of exercise behavior. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 25(1), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1922.214.171.124
Cardinal, B. J., & Cardinal, M. K. (1997). Changes in exercise behavior and exercise identity associated with a 14-week aerobic exercise class. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20(4), 377–386.
Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E., Pratt, M., Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., & Sallis, J. F. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 1381–1395. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB
de Bruijn, G.-J., & van den Putte, B. (2012). Exercise promotion: An integration of exercise self-identity, beliefs, intention, and behaviour. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 354–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.568631
Enders, C. K. (2022). Applied missing data analysis. Guilford Publications.
Feil, K., Fristsch, J., & Rhodes, R. E. (2023). The intention-behaviour gap in physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the action control framework. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2022-106640. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2022-106640
García-Hermoso, A., Ezzatvar, Y., Ramírez-Vélez, R., Olloquequi, J., & Izquierdo, M. (2021). Is device-measured vigorous physical activity associated with health-related outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 10(3), 296–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.12.001
Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C., & Popkin, B. M. (2004). Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: Adolescence to adulthood. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(4), 277–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.07.006
Guedes, D. P., Lopes, C. C., & Guedes, J. E. R. P. (2005). Reproducibility and validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in adolescents. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 11(2), 151–158. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922005000200011
Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2020). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: A pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1· 6 million participants. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(1), 23–35.
Hidding, L. M., Chinapaw, M. J., van Poppel, M. N., Mokkink, L. B., & Altenburg, T. M. (2018). An updated systematic review of childhood physical activity questionnaires. Sports Medicine, 48, 2797–2842. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0987-0
Jenum, A. K., Lorentzen, C. A. N., & Ommundsen, Y. (2009). Targeting physical activity in a low socioeconomic status population: Observations from the Norwegian “Romsås in Motion” study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(1), 64–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.053637
Kendzierski, D., & Morganstein, M. S. (2009). Test, revision, and cross-validation of the physical activity self-definition model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(4), 484–504. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.4.484
Kenny, D. A. (1975). Cross-lagged panel correlation: A test for spuriousness. Psychological Bulletin, 82(6), 887–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.82.6.887
Kenny, D. A., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1979). Cross-lagged panel correlation: Practice and promise. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(4), 372–379. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.4.372
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). Guilford Press.
Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., Peters, G.-J. Y., Mullen, P. D., Parcel, G. S., Ruiter, R. A., Fernández, M. E., Markham, C., & Bartholomew, L. K. (2016). A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: An intervention mapping approach. Health Psychology Review, 10(3), 297–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2015.1077155
Kovacevic, D., Bray, S. R., Brown, D. M., & Kwan, M. Y. (2022). Understanding changes in adolescent physical activity behaviors and cognitions prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, 895097. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2022.895097
Kroger, J. (2006). Identity development: Adolescence through adulthood. Sage publications.
Kwan, M. Y., Dutta, P., Bray, S. R., Brown, D. M., Cairney, J., Dunton, G. F., Graham, J. D., Rebar, A. L., & Rhodes, R. E. (2020). Methods and design for the ADAPT study: Application of integrateD Approaches to understanding Physical activity during the Transition to emerging adulthood. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 426. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08484-0
Lai, M. H., & Kwok, O. (2015). Examining the rule of thumb of not using multilevel modeling: The “design effect smaller than two” rule. The Journal of Experimental Education, 83(3), 423–438. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2014.907229
Lindgren, K. P., Baldwin, S. A., Olin, C. C., Wiers, R. W., Teachman, B. A., Norris, J., Kaysen, D., & Neighbors, C. (2018). Evaluating Within-Person Change in Implicit Measures of Alcohol Associations: Increases in Alcohol Associations Predict Increases in Drinking Risk and Vice Versa. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 53(4), 386–393. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agy012
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford press.
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adeison (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 109–137). Wiley and Sons.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (Eighth). Muthén & Muthén.
Neville, R. D., Lakes, K. D., Hopkins, W. G., Tarantino, G., Draper, C. E., Beck, R., & Madigan, S. (2022). Global Changes in Child and Adolescent Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 176(9), 886–894. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2313
Oliver, E., Hudson, J., & Thomas, L. (2016). Processes of identity development and behaviour change in later life: Exploring self-talk during physical activity uptake. Ageing & Society, 36(7), 1388–1406. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X15000410
Paziraei, S. (2021). Investigating the predictors of exercise identity formation in new exercisers [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Victoria]. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/13617
Rääsk, T., Mäestu, J., Lätt, E., Jürimäe, J., Jürimäe, T., Vainik, U., & Konstabel, K. (2017). Comparison of IPAQ-SF and two other physical activity questionnaires with accelerometer in adolescent boys. PloS One, 12(1), e0169527. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169527
Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-813
Rhodes, R. E. (2017). The evolving understanding of physical activity behavior: A multi-process action control approach. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Advances in Motivation Science (Vol. 4, pp. 171–205). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adms.2016.11.001
Rhodes, R. E. (2021). Multi-process action control in physical activity: A primer. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 5551. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.797484
Rhodes, R. E., Kaushal, N., & Quinlan, A. (2016). Is physical activity a part of who I am? A review and meta-analysis of identity, schema and physical activity. Health Psychology Review, 10(2), 204–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2016.1143334
Rhodes, R. E., La, H., Quinlan, A., & Grant, S. (2021). Enacting physical activity intention: A multi-process action control approach. In C. Englert & I. Taylor, Motivation and self-regulation in sport and exercise (1st ed., pp. 8–19). Routledge.
Rhodes, R. E., McEwan, D., & Rebar, A. L. (2019). Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 100–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.010
Rosseel, Y. (2010). Mplus estimators: MLM and MLR. First Mplus User Meeting–October 27th.
Sallis, J. F., & Saelens, B. E. (2000). Assessment of physical activity by self-report: Status, limitations, and future directions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(sup2), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.11082780
Sheeran, P., & Webb, T. L. (2016). The intention–behavior gap. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(9), 503–518. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12265
Shono, Y., Baldwin, S. A., Peterson, K. P., Neighbors, C., & Lindgren, K. P. (2022). Disentangling the within-and between-person aspects of implicit alcohol associations on hazardous drinking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 31(1), 116–126. https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000552
Sterdt, E., Liersch, S., & Walter, U. (2014). Correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents: A systematic review of reviews. Health Education Journal, 73(1), 72–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896912469578
Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2003). A sociological approach to self and identity. In M. R. Leary & J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 23–50). Guilford Press.
Strachan, S. M., Brawley, L. R., Spink, K. S., Sweet, S. N., & Perras, M. G. (2015). Self-regulatory efficacy’s role in the relationship between exercise identity and perceptions of and actual exercise behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 18, 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.01.002
Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1982). Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior: Theory and research example. In W. Ickes & E. S. Knowles, Personality, roles, and social behavior (pp. 199–218). Springer-Verlag.
Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2005). Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 101(3), 787–802. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.101.3.787-802
van Sluijs, E. M., Ekelund, U., Crochemore-Silva, I., Guthold, R., Ha, A., Lubans, D., Oyeyemi, A. L., Ding, D., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2021). Physical activity behaviours in adolescence: Current evidence and opportunities for intervention. The Lancet, 398(10298), 429–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01259-9
Welk, G., Lamoureux, N. R., Zeng, C., Zhu, Z., Berg, E., Wolff-Hughes, D. L., & Troiano, R. P. (2023). Equating NHANES Monitor Based Physical Activity to Self-Reported Methods to Enhance Ongoing Surveillance Efforts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 55(6), 1034–1043. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000003123
Wunsch, K., Kienberger, K., & Niessner, C. (2022). Changes in physical activity patterns due to the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042250
Zheng, B. Q., & Valente, M. J. (2022). Evaluation of goodness-of-fit tests in random intercept cross-lagged panel model: Implications for small samples. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2022.2149534
Copyright (c) 2023 Carah D. Porter, Matthew Y. W. Kwan, Alan Meca, Denver M. Y. Brown (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.