Preprint / Version 1

Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the CRAVE Scale in three University Samples


  • Farhad Tanhaye Reshvanloo Shandiz Institute of Higher Education
  • Hadi Samadieh University of Birjand
  • Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen Yale - New Haven Hospital



urge for movement, desire, sedentary activity, physical activity, scale development, motivation states, motivation


This study investigated the factor structure and validity of the Cravings for Rest and Volitional Energy Expenditure Scale (CRAVE) in Iranian university students. Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in two-time frames, "Right now" and "Past week". In Study 1, we investigated the internal consistency and factor structure of two models of the scale (10 versus 13 items) using a sample of 313 students. In Study 2, we further investigated the confirmatory factor validity, construct reliability, and convergent validity of the CRAVE using a new sample of 246 students. In Study 3, we explored the criterion validity in another sample of 244 students who completed measures of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Body Mass Index (BMI), and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). The results indicated that the CRAVE scale has a two-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the initial 2-factor solution and had an excellent fit for the data. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were obtained from 0.62 to 0.89. Desire to move (MOVE) was negatively correlated with physical dysfunction and BMI. However, desire to rest (REST) was not associated significantly with these factors. There was a positive relationship between vitality and MOVE and a negative relationship between vitality and REST. Only MOVE assessed “Right now” had a positive and significant relationship with age. There were no significant differences in MOVE and REST in both "Right now" and "Past week" versions between women and men. Overall, the CRAVE scale had acceptable validity and reliability; hence, it can be used among Persian-speaking young adults.


Metrics Loading ...


An, H. Y., Chen, W., Wang, C. W., Yang, H. F., Huang, W. T., & Fan, S. Y. (2020). The relationships between physical activity and life satisfaction and happiness among young, middle-aged, and older adults. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(13), 4817.

Bonett, D. G., & Wright, T. A. (2000). Sample size requirements for estimating Pearson, Kendall, and Spearman correlations. Psychometrika, 65(1), 23-28.

Budnick, C. J., Stults-Kolehmainen, M., Dadina, C., Bartholomew, J. B., Boullosa, D., Ash, G. I., ... & Lu, T. (2023). Motivation states to move, be physically active and sedentary vary like circadian rhythms and are associated with affect and arousal. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 5, 1094288.

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (2019). Constructing validity: New developments in creating objective measuring instruments. Psychological assessment, 31(12), 1412.

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis, 2nd Edn. Hillsdale, NJ.

Corder, K., Winpenny, E., Love, R., Brown, H. E., White, M., & van Sluijs, E. (2019). Change in physical activity from adolescence to early adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(8), 496-503.

Ding, C., & Jiang, Y. (2020). The relationship between body mass index and physical fitness among chinese university students: Results of a longitudinal study. In Healthcare (Vol. 8, No. 4, p. 570). MDPI.

Do, B., Rhodes, R. E., Kanning, M., Hewus, M., & Dunton, G. F. (2022). Examining whether affectively-charged motivations predict subsequent affective response during physical activity: An ecological momentary assessment study. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, 1029144.

Espada, M., Romero-Parra, N., Bores-García, D., & Delfa-De La Morena, J. M. (2023). Gender Differences in University Students’ Levels of Physical Activity and Motivations to Engage in Physical Activity. Education Sciences, 13(4), 340.

Esteghamati, A., Khalilzadeh, O., Rashidi, A., Kamgar, M., Meysamie, A., & Abbasi, M. (2011). Physical activity in Iran: results of the third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007). Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(1), 27-35.

Filgueiras, A., & Stults-Kolehmainen, M. (2022). Risk factors for potential mental illness among Brazilians in quarantine due to COVID-19. Psychological Reports, 125(2), 723-741.

Filgueiras, A., Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., Boullosa, D., Sinha, R., Bartholomew, J. B., McKee, …P., Gilson, T. A., Keegan, R., Viana, A., Bueno, F. A., Medeiros, A. R., Militão-de-Leutério, S. F., & Ash, G, I. (2023). The CRAVE and ARGE scales for motivation states for physical activity and sedentarism: Brazilian Portuguese translation and single-item versions. Frontiers in Psychology, 14:1106571.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (3), 328–388.

Freeman, T. M., Anderman, L. H., & Jensen, J. M. (2007). Sense of belonging in college freshmen at the classroom and campus levels. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(3), 203-220.

Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., ... & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. Plos one, 15(4), e0231924.

GBD Data Visualizations | Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2018).

Gibney, A., Moore, N., Murphy, F., & O’Sullivan, S. (2011). The first semester of university life; 'will I be able to manage it at all?’. Higher Education, 62, 351-366.

Goldberg, D. P., & Hillier, V. F. (1979). A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 9(1), 139–145.

Gurleyik, D., Sen, C. K. N., Etnier, J. L., & Acar, I. H. (2022). Culture in physical activity: The contribution of basic psychological needs and goal orientation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), 16691.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.

Jenkins, M., Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., Hargreaves, E. A., Calverley, J. R., & Lee, C. (2021). Physical activity and psychological well-being during the COVID-19 lockdown: relationships with motivational quality and nature contexts. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 43.

Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 36(4), 403-422.

Kyu, H. H., Bachman, V. F., Alexander, L. T., Mumford, J. E., Afshin, A., Estep, K., ... & Forouzanfar, M. H. (2016). Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. BJM, 354.

La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: a self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 367-384. https://doi:10.1037/0022-3514.79.3.367

Langdon, J., Sturges, D., & Schlote, R. (2018). Flipping the Classroom: Effects on Course Experience, Academic Motivation, and Performance in an Undergraduate Exercise Science Research Methods Course. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 18(4), 13-27.

Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Loukovitis, A., Brand, R., Hudson, A., Mallia, L., ... & Zelli, A. (2017). “I want it all, and I want it now”: lifetime prevalence and reasons for using and abstaining from controlled performance and appearance enhancing substances (PAES) among young exercisers and amateur athletes in five European countries. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 717.

Lev Arey, D., Blatt, A., & Gutman, T. (2022). A Self-Determination Theory and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention aimed at increasing adherence to physical activity. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 935702.

Levitin, D. J., Grahn, J. A., & London, J. (2018). The psychology of music: Rhythm and movement. Annual Review of Psychology, 69, 51-75.

Lippi, G., & Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2020). An estimation of the worldwide epidemiologic burden of physical inactivity-related ischemic heart disease. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 34, 133-137.

Lock, M., Post, D., Dollman, J., & Parfitt, G. (2018). Development of a self-determination theory-based physical activity intervention for aged care workers: Protocol for the activity for well-being program. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 341.

MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4(1),84-99. https://doi.10.1037/1082-989X.4.1.84

Mahdiloo, A., Zareiyan, E., & Jamshidi, A. (2021). The relationship between physical activity, academic engagement, and psychological factors among university students during the quarantine. Sport Psychology Studies, 10(37), 288-259.

Molanorouzi, K., Khoo, S., & Morris, T. (2015). Motives for adult participation in physical activity: type of activity, age, and gender. BMC public health, 15(1), 1-12.

Nelson, M. C., Story, M., Larson, N. I., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Lytle, L. A. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: An overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity, 16 (10), 2205–2211. https://doi.10.1038/oby.2008.365

Nieman, D. C., & Wentz, L. M. (2019). The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defense system. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 8(3), 201-217.

Portela-Pino, I., López-Castedo, A., Martínez-Patiño, M. J., Valverde-Esteve, T., & Domínguez-Alonso, J. (2020). Gender differences in motivation and barriers for the practice of physical exercise in adolescence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 168.

Reyahi, E., Zarei, A., Esmailil, M., & Nikaeein, Z. (2022). Providing a Relational Model of the Physical Activity Passion and Vitality with the Enjoyment of Sports leisure, the Mediates Social Cohesion in the Employees of the Tehran Municipality Sports Organization. Sport Sciences Quarterly, 13(44), 149-170.

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749.

Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of wellbeing. Journal of Personality, 65(3), 529-565.

Sáez, I., Solabarrieta, J., & Rubio, I. (2021). Motivation for physical activity in university students and its relation with gender, amount of activities, and sport satisfaction. Sustainability, 13(6), 3183.

San Román-Mata, S., Puertas-Molero, P., Ubago-Jiménez, J. L., & González-Valero, G. (2020). Benefits of physical activity and its associations with resilience, emotional intelligence, and psychological distress in university students from southern Spain. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(12), 4474.

Sánchez-Herrera, S., Cubero, J., Feu, S., & Durán-Vinagre, M. Á. (2022). Motivation regarding physical exercise among health science university students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(11), 6524.

Shen, B., Lu, X., & Bo, J. (2022). Cross-Cultural Studies of Motivation in Physical Education: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 1(1), 6.

Stevens, C. J., Baldwin, A. S., Bryan, A. D., Conner, M., Rhodes, R. E., & Williams, D. M. (2020). Affective determinants of physical activity: a conceptual framework and narrative review. Frontiers in Psychology, 3366.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A. (2023). Humans have a basic physical and psychological need to move the body: physical activity as a primary drive. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1134049.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., & Sinha, R. (2014). The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Sports Medicine, 44, 81-121.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., Blacutt, M., Bartholomew, J. B., Boullosa, D., Janata, P., Koo, B. B., ... & Ash, G. I. (2022). Urges to move and other motivation states for physical activity in clinical and healthy populations: a scoping review protocol. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 901272.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., Blacutt, M., Bartholomew, J. B., Gilson, T. A., Ash, G. I., McKee, P. C., & Sinha, R. (2020). Motivation states for physical activity and sedentary behavior: desire, urge, wanting, and craving. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 568390.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., Blacutt, M., Fogelman, N., Gilson, T. A., Stanforth, P. R., Divin, A. L., ... & Sinha, R. (2021). Measurement of motivation states for physical activity and sedentary behavior: development and validation of the CRAVE scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 568286.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M. A., Gilson, T. A., SantaBarbara, N., McKee, P. C., Sinha, R., Bartholomew, J. B., ... & Ash, G. I. (2023). Qualitative and quantitative evidence of motivation states for physical activity, exercise and being sedentary from university student focus groups. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 5, 1033619.

Stults-Kolehmainen, M., Blacutt, M., Divin, A., Williamson, S., Gilson, T., Bartholomew, J. B., & Sinha, R. (2020). The Desire to Move and Rest: Assessing Reliability and Validity of The CRAVE Scale: 466 Board #282 May 27 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52, 122-122.

Taghavi, S. (2008). The Normalization of General Health Questionnaire for Shiraz University Students (GHQ-28). Clinical Psychology and Personality, 6(1), 1-12.

Tanhaye Reshvanloo, F., Kareshki, H., & Torkamani, M. (2019). Psychometric Properties of State Level Subjective Vitality Scale based on classical test theory and Item-response theory. Rooyesh-e- Ravanshenasi Journal, 8(10), 79-88.

Vergara-Moragues, E., & González-Saiz, F. (2020). Predictive outcome validity of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in substance abuse patients treated in therapeutic communities. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 16, 218–227.

Wahyuti, S. A., Siswantoyo, S., Meikahani, R., Paryadi, W., Putro, A. S., Perdana, R. P., & Dewangga, M. W. (2022). Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Women's Volleyball Athletes during COVID-19 Pandemic in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences, 5(6), 1102-1108.

Williams, D. M., & Bohlen, L. C. (2019). Motivation for exercise: Reflective desire versus hedonic dread. In M. H. Anshel, S. J. Petruzzello, & E. E. Labbé (Eds.), APA handbook of sport and exercise psychology, Vol. 2. Exercise psychology (pp. 363–385). American Psychological Association.

Wu, J., & He, L. (2022). The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Participation Rate Design Based on Fuzzy Breakpoint Regression Design. Journal of Sensors, 2022.