Preprint / Version 1

Kinematic analysis of soccer goalkeeper’s diving save in penalty: effect of instructional video and laterality on performance


  • Rafael Luiz Martins Monteiro Rafael University of São Paulo
  • Carlos Cesar Arruda dos Santos
  • Patrick Blauberger
  • Daniel Link
  • Tiago Guedes Russomano
  • Ariany Klein Tahara
  • Abel Gonçalves Chinaglia
  • Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago



goalkeeper, soccer, penalty, biomechanics, kinematics


Background: It is essential to develop effective instructional methods to improve the goalkeepers’ diving kinematic performances. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of laterality and instructional video on the soccer goalkeepers’ dive kinematics in penalty.

Methods: Eight goalkeepers belonging to youth categories (U15, U17 and U20) were randomly divided into control group (CG) and video instruction group (VG). The second performed 20 penalty defense trials on the field with balls thrown by a machine, ten before and after receiving a video instruction to improve the diving kinematics, while the CG only performed the dives. Three cameras recorded the collections. A markerless motion capture technique (OpenPose) was used for the identification of joints and anatomical references. The 2D data were used for 3D reconstruction through the direct linear transformation method. Side preference was collected through an inventory. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures, common and the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM-1D) Student's t test for paired samples methods were applied for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: In the post-instruction situation, the VG presented differences in comparison to the CG in the variables: knee flexion/extension angle, time to reach peak resultant velocity, frontal step distance, and frontal departure angle, which generated greater acceleration during the dive. Regarding laterality, it was found that attempts to the non-dominant leg side had higher resultant velocity during 88.4 – 100% of the diving cycle, different knee flexion/extension angle, and higher values ​​in the frontal step distance.

Conclusion: The instructional video generated an acute change in the diving movement pattern of specialized young goalkeepers when comparing the control and the video instruction group in the post condition. This can be used in training sessions to improve the movement pattern of goalkeeper’s dives.


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