Preprint / Version 1

The effects of exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Men

a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials


  • Blair Rose Hamilton
  • Katherine Staines
  • George Kelley
  • Kristi Kelley
  • Wendy Kohrt
  • Yannis Pitsiladis
  • Fergus Guppy



bone, exercise, men, meta-analysis, osteoporosis


Introduction: Exercise is a cost-effective, widely available intervention that has been reported to help maintain optimal bone mineral density (BMD) in men, however, consideration of exercise modality is needed if the aim is to promote skeletal health. A previous meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials observed a moderate benefit on femoral neck (FN) but no benefit on lumbar spine (LS) BMD. However, since that analysis more randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been published and updated methods of meta-analysis have been developed and therefore an updated systematic review and meta-analysis is required. Methods and analysis: RCTs of >24 weeks and published in English up to 01/05/20 will be retrieved by searching 3 electronic databases, cross referencing and expert review. The primary outcome measures will be changes in FN and LS BMD and lower limb BMD. Risk of bias for each study will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias instrument for RCTs, while the strength of evidence for each outcome will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) instrument. Standardised effect sizes will be calculated from each study and pooled using the inverse heterogeneity (IVhet) model. Trial Registration number: CRD42020180441.



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