This is an outdated version published on 2022-12-25. Read the most recent version.
Preprint / Version 1

Humans have a basic physical and psychological need to move the body

Physical activity as a primary drive




drive, motivation, Exercise, physical activity, affect


Movement, while less necessary for survival in modern times, is still essential for thriving in life, and low levels of movement are related to a whole host of physical and mental health problems. However, we poorly understand why people move on a day-to-day basis and how to promote greater energy expenditure. Recently, there has been a turn to understand automatic processes with close examination of older theories of behavior. This has co-occurred new developments in the study of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). I propose that the concept of psycho-physiological drive is important to understand movement in general and NEAT, specifically. Drive, in short, is a motivation state, characterized by arousal and felt tension, energizing the organism to acquire a basic need. Movement is a biological necessity, similar to food, water and sleep, but varying like across the lifespan and having the greatest impact before adolescence. Movement meets various criteria for a primary drive: a) deprivation of it produces feelings of tension, such as an urge or craving, known as affectively-charge motivation states, and specifically the feeling of being antsy, restless, hyper and cooped up, b) provision of the need quickly reduces tension, one can be satiated, and may even over-consume, c) it can be provoked by qualities of the environment, d) it is under homeostatic control, e) there is an appetite (e.g., appetence) for movement but also aversion, and f) it has a developmental time course. Evidence for drive has mainly come from children and populations with hyperkinetic disorders, such as those with anorexia nervosa, restless leg syndrome, and akathisia. It is also stimulated in conditions of deprivation, such as bed rest, quarantine, flights, and physical restraint. It seems to be lacking in the hypokinetic disorders, such as depression and Parkinson’s. Thus, drive is related to negative reinforcement and displeasure, subsuming it within the theory of hedonic drive, but it may fit better within new paradigms, such as the WANT model (Wants and Aversions for Neuromuscular Tasks). Recently developed measurement tools, such as the CRAVE scale, may permit the earnest investigation of movement drive, satiation, and motivation states in humans.


Metrics Loading ...


Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2011;43(7):1334-59. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb

USDHHS. 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.

Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, Borodulin K, Buman MP, Cardon G, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2020;54(24):1451-62. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955

Greenleaf JE, Kozlowski S. Physiological consequences of reduced physical activity during bed rest. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 1982;10(1):84-119.

DeRoshia CW, Greenleaf JE. Performance and mood-state parameters during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with exercise training. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1993;64(6):522-7.

Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Exercise as medicine - evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25 Suppl 3:1-72. doi: 10.1111/sms.12581

Musumeci G, Trovato FM, Pichler K, Weinberg AM, Loreto C, Castrogiovanni P. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2013;24(12):2064-75. doi:

Crane JD, MacNeil LG, Lally JS, Ford RJ, Bujak AL, Brar IK, et al. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging. Aging Cell. 2015;14(4):625-34. doi:

Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219-29. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61031-9

Khmaladze I, Leonardi M, Fabre S, Messaraa C, Mavon A. The skin interactome: a holistic “genome-microbiome-exposome” approach to understand and modulate skin health and aging. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 2020;13:1021. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S239367

Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK. Appropriate Physical Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009;41(7):459-71. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ae46a1

Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD. Role of Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis in Resistance to Fat Gain in Humans. Science. 1999;283(5399):212-4. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5399.212

Levine JA, Lanningham-Foster LM, McCrady SK, Krizan AC, Olson LR, Kane PH, et al. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: Possible rote in human obesity. Science. 2005;307(5709):584-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1106561

Vicente-Rodríguez G. How does Exercise Affect Bone Development during Growth? Sports Medicine. 2006;36(7):561-9. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200636070-00002

Parker PRL, Brown MA, Smear MC, Niell CM. Movement-Related Signals in Sensory Areas: Roles in Natural Behavior. Trends in Neurosciences. 2020;43(8):581-95. doi:

Kim YS, Park YS, Allegrante JP, Marks R, Ok H, Ok Cho K, et al. Relationship between physical activity and general mental health. Preventive Medicine. 2012;55(5):458-63. doi:

Chekroud SR, Gueorguieva R, Zheutlin AB, Paulus M, Krumholz HM, Krystal JH, et al. Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1·2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2018;5(9):739-46. doi:

Sandler H. Inactivity: Physiological Effects: Elsevier Science; 2012.

de Sousa AFM, Medeiros A, Del Rosso S, Stults-Kolehmainen M, Boullosa D. The influence of exercise and physical fitness status on attention: a systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;12(1):202-34. doi: 10.1080/1750984x.2018.1455889

de Sousa AFM, Medeiros AR, Benitez-Flores S, Del Rosso S, Stults-Kolehmainen M, Boullosa DA. Improvements in Attention and Cardiac Autonomic Modulation After a 2-Weeks Sprint Interval Training Program: A Fidelity Approach. Frontiers in Physiology. 2018;9(241). doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00241

Zubek J. Effects of prolonged sensory and perceptual deprivation. British Medical Bulletin. 1964. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a070280

Pearce M, Garcia L, Abbas A, Strain T, Schuch FB, Golubic R, et al. Association Between Physical Activity and Risk of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA psychiatry. 2022.

Wilde-Frenz J, Schulz H. Rate and distribution of body movements during sleep in humans. Perceptual and motor skills. 1983;56(1):275-83. doi: 10.2466/pms.1983.56.1.275

Walton-Geer PS. Prevention of pressure ulcers in the surgical patient. AORN journal. 2009;89(3):538-52. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2008.12.022

Fiuza-Luces C, Garatachea N, Berger NA, Lucia A. Exercise is the real polypill. Physiology. 2013. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00019.2013

Biddle SJ. Barriers to physical activity: Time to change? A Preventive Medicine Golden Jubilee Editorial. Preventive Medicine. 2022;163:107193. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107193

Rosenberger ME, Fulton JE, Buman MP, Troiano RP, Grandner MA, Buchner DM, et al. The 24-Hour Activity Cycle: A New Paradigm for Physical Activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51(3):454-64. doi: 10.1249/mss.0000000000001811

McDonnell EI, Zipunnikov V, Schrack JA, Goldsmith J, Wrobel J. Registration of 24-hour accelerometric rest-activity profiles and its application to human chronotypes. Biological Rhythm Research. 2022;53(8):1299-319. doi: 10.1080/09291016.2021.1929673

King NA, Caudwell P, Hopkins M, Byrne NM, Colley R, Hills AP, et al. Metabolic and behavioral compensatory responses to exercise interventions: Barriers to weight loss. Obesity. 2007;15(6):1373-83. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.164

Garland T, Schutz H, Chappell MA, Keeney BK, Meek TH, Copes LE, et al. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2011;214(2):206-29. doi: 10.1242/jeb.048397

Raichlen DA, Pontzer H, Zderic TW, Harris JA, Mabulla AZ, Hamilton MT, et al. Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020;117(13):7115-21. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1911868117

Higgins S, Pomeroy A, Bates LC, Paterson C, Barone Gibbs B, Pontzer H, et al. Sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk: An evolutionary perspective. Frontiers in Physiology. 2022:1556. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.962791

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Blacutt M, Bartholomew JB, Gilson TA, Ash GI, McKee PC, et al. Motivation States for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Desire, Urge, Wanting, and Craving. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11(3076). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.568390

Ussery EN, Whitfield GP, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, Matthews CE, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Trends in Self-Reported Sitting Time by Physical Activity Levels Among US Adults, NHANES 2007/2008–2017/2018. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2021;18(S1):S74-S83. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2021-0221

Hyde ET, Whitfield GP, Omura JD, Fulton JE, Carlson SA. Trends in Meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines: Muscle-Strengthening Alone and Combined With Aerobic Activity, United States, 1998–2018. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2021;18(S1):S37-S44. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2021-0077

Wong MC, McCarthy C, Fearnbach N, Yang S, Shepherd J, Heymsfield SB. Emergence of the obesity epidemic: 6-decade visualization with humanoid avatars. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2022;115(4):1189-93. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac005

Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Gu Q, Afful J, Ogden CL. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults : United States, 2015-2018. 2021;3(46).

Cheval B, Radel R, Neva JL, Boyd LA, Swinnen SP, Sander D, et al. Behavioral and Neural Evidence of the Rewarding Value of Exercise Behaviors: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(6):1389-404. doi: 10.1007/s40279-018-0898-0

Rowland T. Biologic regulation of physical activity: Human Kinetics; 2016.

Bridges KMB. The development of the primary drives in infancy. Child Development. 1936;7(1):40-56. doi:

Seward G, Seward JP. Internal and external determinants of drives. Psychological Review. 1937;44(4):349. doi:

Reardon J, Payan J, Miller C, Alexander J. Optimal Class Length in Marketing Undergraduate Classes: An Examination of Preference, Instructor Evaluations, and Student Performance. Journal of Marketing Education. 2008;30(1):12-20. doi: 10.1177/0273475307312193

Bouwens JM, Fasulo L, Hiemstra-van Mastrigt S, Schultheis UW, Naddeo A, Vink P. Effect of in-seat exercising on comfort perception of airplane passengers. Applied Ergonomics. 2018;73:7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2018.05.011

Zuckerman M, Persky H, Link KE, Basu GK. Responses to confinement: an investigation of sensory deprivation, social isolation, restriction of movement and set factors. Percept Mot Skills. 1968;27(1):319-34. doi: 10.2466/pms.1968.27.1.319

Stults-Kolehmainen M, Filgueiras A, Blacutt M. Factors linked to changes in mental health outcomes among Brazilians in quarantine due to COVID-19. medRxiv. 2021:2020.05.12.20099374. doi: 10.1101/2020.05.12.20099374

Blacutt M, Filgueiras A, Stults-Kolehmainen M. Prevalence and incidence of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among Brazilians in quarantine across the early phases of the COVID-19 crisis. medRxiv. 2021. doi: doi:

Filgueiras A, Stults-Kolehmainen M. Risk factors for potential mental illness among Brazilians in quarantine due to COVID-19. Psychological Reports. 2022;125(2):723-41. doi:

Galton F. The Measure of Fidget. Nature. 1885;32(817):174-5. doi: 10.1038/032174b0

Seli P, Carriere JS, Thomson DR, Cheyne JA, Martens KAE, Smilek D. Restless mind, restless body. Journal of experimental psychology: learning, memory, and cognition. 2014;40(3):660. doi: 10.1037/a0035260

Morgan PM, Salacinski AJ, Stults-Kolehmainen MA. The acute effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique on recovery from maximal eccentric exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2013;27(12):3467-74. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828f277e

Shalev S. A sourcebook on solitary confinement. Available at SSRN 2177495. 2008.

Ryan RM, Deci EL. Active human nature: Self-determination theory and the promotion and maintenance of sport, exercise and health. In: Haggar MS, Chatzisarantis NLD, editors. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007. p. 1-20.

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Ciccolo JT, Bartholomew JB, Seifert J, Portman RS. Age and Gender-related Changes in Exercise Motivation among Highly Active Individuals. Athletic Insight. 2013;5(1):45-63. doi:

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Gilson TA, Abolt CJ. Feelings of acceptance and intimacy among teammates predict motivation in intercollegiate sport. Journal of Sport Behavior. 2013;36(3). doi:

Biddle SJH. Exercise motivation across the life span. In: Biddle SJH, editor. European Perspective on Exercise and Sport Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1995. p. 3-35.

Brand R, Ekkekakis P. Affective–Reflective Theory of physical inactivity and exercise. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research. 2018;48(1):48-58. doi: 10.1007/s12662-017-0477-9

Conroy DE, Berry TR. Automatic Affective Evaluations of Physical Activity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2017;45(4):230-7. doi: 10.1249/jes.0000000000000120

Marrow AJ. The practical theorist: The life and work of Kurt Lewin: Teachers College Press; 1977.

Butt DS. Psychology of Sport. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1976.

Alderman RB. Psychological behavior in sport: WB Saunders Company; 1974.

Rebar AL, Gardner B, Rhodes RE, Verplanken B. The Measurement of Habit. In: Verplanken B, editor. The Psychology of Habit: Theory, Mechanisms, Change, and Contexts. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018. p. 31-49.

Stults-Kolehmainen M, Gilson T, SantaBarbara N, McKee P, Sinha R, Bartholomew J, et al. Qualitative and quantitative evidence of motivation states for physical activity, exercise and being sedentary from university student focus groups. SportRxiv. 2022. doi:

Gardner B. A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour. Health Psychology Review. 2015;9(3):277-95. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2013.876238

Hull CL. Principles of behavior: an introduction to behavior theory. New York: Appleton-Century; 1943.

Hull CL. A behavior system; an introduction to behavior theory concerning the individual organism. 1952. doi:

Skinner BF, Morse WH. Fixed-interval reinforcement of running in a wheel. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 1958;1(4):371-9. doi: 10.1901/jeab.1958.1-371

Landers DM. The arousal-performance relationship revisited. Research Quarterly for exercise and sport. 1980;51(1):77-90.

Tenenbaum G, Bar-Eli M. Personality and intellectual capabilities in sport psychology. International Handbook of Personality and Intelligence: Plenum Press; 1995. p. 687-710.

Martens R. Anxiety and motor behavior: A review. Journal of Motor Behavior. 1971;3(2):151-79. doi:

Martens R. Arousal and motor performance. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 1974;2(1):155-88. doi:

Rowland TW. The biological basis of physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1998;30(3):392-9. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199803000-00009

Rowland TW. Adolescence: A" Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. 1999. doi:

Rhodes RE, McEwan D, Rebar AL. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2019;42:100-9. doi:

Greenwood BN, Fleshner M. Voluntary wheel running: a useful rodent model for investigating mechanisms of stress robustness and exercise motivation. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 2019;28:78-84. doi:

Frijda NH. The evolutionary emergence of what we call “emotions”. Cognition and Emotion. 2016;30(4):609-20. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1145106

Lichtenstein MB, Jensen TT. Exercise addiction in CrossFit: Prevalence and psychometric properties of the Exercise Addiction Inventory. Addictive behaviors reports. 2016;3:33-7.

Conrad JA. Drive theory, redux: a history and reconsideration of the drives. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 2021;102(3):492-518. doi: 10.1080/00207578.2020.1848389

Seward JP. Drive, incentive, and reinforcement. Psychological review. 1956;63(3):195. doi:

Katsafanas P. The emergence of the drive concept and the collapse of the animal/ human divide. 2018. p. 239-67.

Freud S. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. In: Strachey J, Freud S, editors. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Vintage; 1964.

Baumeister R, Vohs K. Drive Theory. 2007 2022/12/17. In: Encyclopedia of Social Psychology [Internet]. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc. Available from:

American Psychological Association. Drive: APA; 2022 [Available from:

Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994;67(2):319-33. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.67.2.319

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Sinha R. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Sports Medicine. 2014;44(1):81-121. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0090-5

Bartholomew JB, Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Elrod CC, Todd JS. Strength gains after resistance training: the effect of stressful, negative life events. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1215-21. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318173d0bf

Lutz RS, Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Bartholomew JB. Exercise caution when stressed: Stages of change and the stress-exercise participation relationship. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2010;11(6):560-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.005

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Bartholomew JB. Psychological stress impairs short-term muscular recovery from resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44(11):2220-7. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825f67a0

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Bartholomew JB, Sinha R. Chronic Psychological Stress Impairs Recovery of Muscular Function and Somatic Sensations over a 96 Hour Period. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014;28(7):2007–17. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000335

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Lu T, Ciccolo JT, Bartholomew JB, Brotnow L, Sinha R. Higher chronic psychological stress is associated with blunted affective responses to strenuous resistance exercise: RPE, pleasure, pain. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2016;22:27-36. doi:

Taormina RJ, Gao JH. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: Measuring satisfaction of the needs. The American journal of psychology. 2013;126(2):155-77. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.2.0155

Maslow AH. A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review. 1943;50(4):370-96. doi:

Maslow AH. Motivation and personality. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1987.

Butler RA. Discrimination learning by rhesus monkeys to visual-exploration motivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 1953;46:95-8. doi: 10.1037/h0061616

Barrett LF, Mesquita B, Ochsner KN, Gross JJ. The experience of emotion. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:373-403. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085709

Spence KW. Behavior theory and conditioning. New Haven, CT: Yale University; 1956.

Skinner GW, Mitchell D, Harden LM. Avoidance of physical activity is a sensitive indicator of illness. Physiology & Behavior. 2009;96(3):421-7. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.11.004

Dohnalová L, Lundgren P, Carty JRE, Goldstein N, Wenski SL, Nanudorn P, et al. A microbiome-dependent gut–brain pathway regulates motivation for exercise. Nature. 2022. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05525-z

Szondi L. Szondi, Leopold (1972) Lehrbuch der Experimentellen Triebdiagnostik, Bd. 2, Testband. Bern Burgmer, Brigitte (1983) Ausdrucksformen. Eine Studie zu den Szondi-Test-Personen. München. S. 25 f.

Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin. 1995;117(3):497-529. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Bracha HS, Ralston TC, Matsukawa JM, Williams AE, Bracha AS. Does “fight or flight” need updating? Psychosomatics. 2004;45(5):448-9.

Lore RK. Activity-drive hypothesis: Effects of activity restriction. Psychological Bulletin. 1968;70(6, Part 1):566-74. doi: 10.1037/h0026780

Collier GH. Work- A weak reinforcer. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1970;32(5):557-76. doi:

Feige K. Wesen und Problematik der Sportmotivation. Sportunterricht. 1976;5:4-7.

Reiss S. Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires. Review of General Psychology. 2004;8(3):179-93. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.8.3.179

Schultheiss OC, Wirth MM. Biopsychological aspects of motivation. Motivation and action, 2nd ed. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 247-71.

de Geus EJ, de Moor MH. Genes, exercise, and psychological factors. In: Bouchard C, Hoff man EP, editors. Genetic and molecular aspects of sports performance. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2011. p. 294–305.

Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N, Kim JH, Voy BH, Bassett D, Bray MS, et al. The regulation of physical activity by genetic mechanisms: Is there a drive to be active? In: Bouchard C, Hoffman EP, editors. Genetic and Molecular Aspects of Sport Performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2011. p. 283-93.

Tolman EC. Purposive behavior in animals and men. London, England: Century/Random House UK; 1932. xiv, 463-xiv.

Panksepp J. Emotional endophenotypes in evolutionary psychiatry. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30(5):774-84. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.004

Panksepp J, Biven L. The archaeology of mind. Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotions. New York: Norton; 2012.

Cabanac M. Sensory pleasure optimizes muscular work. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 2006;29(2):110-6.

Cabanac M. Exertion and pleasure from an evolutionary perspective. In: Acevedo EO, Ekkekakis P, editors. Psychobiology of Physical Activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2006. p. 79-89.

Ekkekakis P. Pleasure from the exercising body: Two centuries of changing outlooks in psychological thought. In: Ekkekakis P, editor. Routledge Handbook of Physical Activity and Mental Health. New York: Routledge; 2013. p. 35-56.

Wilson TD, Reinhard DA, Westgate EC, Gilbert DT, Ellerbeck N, Hahn C, et al. Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind. Science. 2014;345(6192):75-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1250830

Casper RC. Not the Function of Eating, but Spontaneous Activity and Energy Expenditure, Reflected in "Restlessness" and a "Drive for Activity" Appear to Be Dysregulated in Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment Implications. Front Psychol. 2018;9:2303. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02303

Casper RC. Restlessness and an Increased Urge to Move (Drive for Activity) in Anorexia Nervosa May Strengthen Personal Motivation to Maintain Caloric Restriction and May Augment Body Awareness and Proprioception: A Lesson From Leptin Administration in Anorexia Nervosa. Front Psychol. 2022;13:885274. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.885274

Davis C, Woodside DB. Sensitivity to the rewarding effects of food and exercise in the eating disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2002;43(3):189-94. doi: 10.1053/comp.2002.32356

Scheurink AJW, Boersma GJ, Nergardh R, Sodersten P. Neurobiology of hyperactivity and reward: Agreeable restlessness in Anorexia Nervosa. Physiology & Behavior. 2010;100(5):490-5. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.03.016

Garcia-Borreguero D, Stillman P, Benes H, Buschmann H, Chaudhuri KR, Rodriguez VMG, et al. Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care. Bmc Neurology. 2011;11:12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-28

Khan FH, Ahlberg CD, Chow CA, Shah DR, Koo BB. Iron, dopamine, genetics, and hormones in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. Journal of neurology. 2017;264(8):1634-41. doi: 10.1007/s00415-017-8431-1

Iqbal N, Lambert T, Masand P. Akathisia: Problem of history or concern of today. Cns Spectrums. 2007;12(9):1-13. doi: 10.1017/s1092852900026201

Ferreira A, Lamarque S, Boyer P, Perez-Diaz F, Jouvent R, Cohen-Salmon C. Spontaneous appetence for wheel-running: a model of dependency on physical activity in rat. European Psychiatry. 2006;21(8):580-8. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2005.02.003

Hausenblas HA, Downs DS. Exercise dependence: a systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2002;3(2):89-123. doi: 10.1016/s1469-0292(00)00015-7

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Blacutt M, Bartholomew JB, Boullosa D, Janata P, Koo BB, et al. Urges to Move and Other Motivation States for Physical Activity in Clinical and Healthy Populations: A Scoping Review Protocol. Frontiers in Psychology. 2022;13. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.901272

Willerman L. Activity level and hyperactivity in twins. Child Development. 1973;44(2):288-93. doi:

James W. The Energies of Men. The Philosophical Review. 1907;16(1):1-20. doi: 10.2307/2177575

Busch AM, Ciccolo JT, Puspitasari AJ, Nosrat S, Whitworth JW, Stults-Kolehmainen M. Preferences for Exercise as a Treatment for Depression. Mental Health and Physical Activity. 2016;10:68-72. doi: 10.1016/j.mhpa.2015.12.004

Sinha N, Manohar S, Husain M. Impulsivity and apathy in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neuropsychology. 2013;7(2):255-83. doi:

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Blacutt M, Fogelman N, Gilson TA, Stanforth PR, Divin AL, et al. Measurement of Motivation States for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Development and Validation of the CRAVE Scale. Frontiers in Psychology. 2021;12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.568286

Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE, Christin L, Bogardus C. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1986;78(6):1568-78. doi: 10.1172/JCI112749

Budnick CJ, Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Dadina C, Bartholomew JB, Boullosa D, Ash GI, et al. Motivation states to move, be physically active and sedentary vary like circadian rhythms and are associated with affect and arousal. SportRxiv. 2022. doi:

Loewenstein G. Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1996;65(3):272-92. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0028

Ishizaki Y, Ishizaki T, Fukuoka H, Kim CS, Fujita M, Maegawa Y, et al. Changes in mood status and neurotic levels during a 20-day bed rest. Acta Astronautica. 2002;50(7):453-9. doi: 10.1016/s0094-5765(01)00189-8

Jarrett OS, Maxwell DM, Dickerson C, Hoge P, Davies G, Yetley A. Impact of recess on classroom behavior: Group effects and individual differences. Journal of Educational Research. 1998;92(2):121-6. doi:

Heilmaier C, Theysohn JM, Maderwald S, Kraff O, Ladd ME, Ladd SC. A large‐scale study on subjective perception of discomfort during 7 and 1.5 T MRI examinations. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011;32(8):610-9. doi: 10.1002/bem.20680

Aoyagi N, Ohashi K, Yamamoto Y. Frequency characteristics of long-term heart rate variability during constant-routine protocol. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2003;285(1):R171-R6.

Mondin GW, Morgan WP, Piering PN, Stegner AJ, Stotesbery CL, Trine MR, et al. Psychological consequences of exercise deprivation in habitual exercisers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1996;28(9):1199-203. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199609000-00018

Sugawara J, Murakami H, Maeda S, Kuno S, Matsuda M. Change in post-exercise vagal reactivation with exercise training and detraining in young men. European journal of applied physiology. 2001;85(3):259-63.

Scherder EJA, Bogen T, Eggermont LHP, Hamers JPH, Swaab DF. The more physical inactivity, the more agitation in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics. 2010;22(8):1203-8. doi: 10.1017/S1041610210001493

Lilly JC. The Isolation Tank Experiences 2022 [Available from:

Bennett WI. Beyond overeating. New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;332(10):673-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199503093321009

Westerterp KR. Exercise, energy balance and body composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018;72(9):1246-50. doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0180-4

Gomersall SR, Maher C, English C, Rowlands AV, Dollman J, Norton K, et al. Testing the activitystat hypothesis: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):900. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3568-x

Bain A. The senses and the intellect. London: John W. Parker & Son; 1855.

Baldwin JM. Handbook of Psychology: Feeling and Will. New York: Henry Holt & Company; 1891.

Baldwin JM. Mental development in the child and the race: Methods and processes. New York: Macmillan; 1894.

Shirley M. Spontaneous activity. Psychological Bulletin. 1929;26(6):341-65. doi: 10.1037/h0073516

Hill WF. Activity as an autonomous drive. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 1956;49(1):15-9. doi: 10.1037/h0044786

Finger FW, Mook DG. Basic drives. Annual Review of Psychology. 1971;22:1-&. doi: 10.1146/

Emerson KG. Coping with being cooped up: Social distancing during COVID-19 among 60+ in the United States. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública. 2020;44:e81. doi: 10.26633/RPSP.2020.81

Herring MP, O'Connor PJ. The effect of acute resistance exercise on feelings of energy and fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2009;27(7):701-9. doi: 10.1080/02640410902777385

Levitt AJ, Joffe RT, Moul DE, Lam RW, Teicher MH, Lebegue B, et al. Side effects of light therapy in seasonal affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1993;150:650-2. doi: 10.1176/ajp.150.4.650

Rabkin JG, McElhiney MC, Rabkin R, Ferrando SJ. Modafinil treatment for fatigue in HIV+ patients: a pilot study. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2004;65(12):12112. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v65n1215

Hauser RA, Zesiewicz TA. Sertraline for the treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease. Movement disorders: official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 1997;12(5):756-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.870120522

Barker JL, Kolar D, Lazzer AS-D, Keel PK. Exercise Satiation: A novel theoretical conceptualization for problematic exercise observed in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2022;55(2):176-9. doi:

Beighle A, Alderman B, Morgan CF, Masurier GL. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2008;79(2):256-60. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2008.10599488

Tucker P, Gilliland J. The effect of season and weather on physical activity: A systematic review. Public Health. 2007;121(12):909-22. doi:

Kaplan GB, Greenblatt DJ, Ehrenberg BL, Goddard JE, Cotreau MM, Harmatz JS, et al. Dose-Dependent Pharmacokinetics and Psychomotor Effects of Caffeine in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1997;37(8):693-703. doi:

Dunk NM, Callaghan JP. Lumbar spine movement patterns during prolonged sitting differentiate low back pain developers from matched asymptomatic controls. Work. 2010;35(1):3-14. doi: 10.3233/wor-2010-0953

Beitel M, Stults-Kolehmainen M, Cutter CJ, Schottenfeld RS, Eggert K, Madden LM, et al. Physical activity, psychiatric distress, and interest in exercise group participation among individuals seeking methadone maintenance treatment with and without chronic pain. The American Journal on Addictions. 2016;25(2):125-31. doi:

Troisi A. Displacement Activities as a Behavioral Measure of Stress in Nonhuman Primates and Human Subjects. Stress-the International Journal on the Biology of Stress. 2002;5(1):46-53. doi: 10.1080/10253890290012378

Mohiyeddini C, Bauer S, Semple S. Displacement Behaviour Is Associated with Reduced Stress Levels among Men but Not Women. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056355

Glaviano NR, Baellow A, Saliba S. Elevated Fear Avoidance Affects Lower Extremity Strength and Squatting Kinematics in Women With Patellofemoral Pain. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care. 2019;11(4):192-200. doi: 10.3928/19425864-20181029-01

Lundberg M, Larsson M, Ostlund H, Styf J. Kinesiophobia among patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary healthcare. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2006;38(1):37-43. doi: 10.1080/16501970510041253

Brown JS. Pleasure-seeking behavior and the drive-reduction hypothesis. Psychological Review. 1955;62(3):169. doi:

Salamone JD, Correa M. Motivational views of reinforcement: implications for understanding the behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Behavioural Brain Research. 2002;137(1-2):3-25. doi: 10.1016/s0166-4328(02)00282-6

Berridge KC, Robinson TE. What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews. 1998;28(3):309-69.

Hilgard ER, Bower GH. Theories of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1975.

Smith L. Encyclopedia of Psychology. In: Kazdin AE, editor. 4. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 168-70.

Young PT. Hedonic organization and regulation of behavior. Psychological Review. 1966;73:59-86. doi: 10.1037/h0022630

Riediger M, Schmiedek F, Wagner GG, Lindenberger U. Seeking pleasure and seeking pain: Differences in prohedonic and contra-hedonic motivation from adolescence to old age. Psychological Science. 2009;20(12):1529-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02473.x

Babbitt T, Rowland G, Franken R. Sensation seeking and participation in aerobic exercise classes. Personality and Individual Differences. 1990;11(2):181-3. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(90)90011-f

Babbitt T, Rowland GL, Franken RE. Sensation seeking - Preoccupation with diet and exercise regiments. Personality and Individual Differences. 1990;11(7):759-61. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(90)90264-r

Rhodes RE, Smith NEI. Personality correlates of physical activity: a review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006;40(12):958-65. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.028860

Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. Some Like It Vigorous: Measuring Individual Differences in the Preference for and Tolerance of Exercise Intensity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2005;27(3):350-474. doi:

Jones L, Zenko Z. Strategies to facilitate more pleasant exercise experiences. Essentials of exercise and sport psychology: An open access textbook. 2021:242-70. doi:

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Blacutt M, Gilson TA, Stanforth P, Divin AL, Bartholomew JB, et al. I want to move my body - right now! The CRAVE Scale to measure state motivation for physical activity and sedentary behavior. MedrXiv. 2020. doi:

Filgueiras A, Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Boullosa D, Sinha R, Bartholomew JB, McKee P, et al. The CRAVE and ARGE Scales for motivation states for physical activity and sedentarism: Brazilian Portuguese translation and single-item versions. SportRxiv. 2022. doi:

Janata P, Tomic ST, Haberman JM. Sensorimotor coupling in music and the psychology of the groove. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2012;141(1):54-75. doi: 10.1037/a0024208

Janata P, Peterson J, Ngan C, Keum B, Whiteside H, Ran S. Psychological and Musical Factors Underlying Engagement with Unfamiliar Music. Music Perception. 2018;36(2):175-200. doi: 10.1525/mp.2018.36.2.175

Watten RG. Use of drugs, coping styles, mental absorption and some outcomes related to health and social activity. European Addiction Research. 1997;3(4):192-8. doi:

Sonstroem RJ, Morgan WP. Exercise and self-esteem: Rationale and model. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1989;21:329-37. doi: 10.1249/00005768-198906000-00018

Inzlicht M, Schmeichel BJ, Macrae CN. Why self-control seems (but may not be) limited. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2014;18(3):127-33. doi:

McBeth J, Nicholl BI, Cordingley L, Davies KA, Macfarlane GJ. Chronic widespread pain predicts physical inactivity: Results from the prospective EPIFUND study. European Journal of Pain. 2010;14(9):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.03.005

Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A. Most people are not WEIRD. Nature. 2010;466(7302):29-. doi: 10.1038/466029a

Lake A, Townshend T. Obesogenic environments: exploring the built and food environments. The Journal of the Royal society for the Promotion of Health. 2006;126(6):262-7. doi: 10.1177/1466424006070487

Speck RM, Bond DS, Sarwer DB, Farrar JT. A systematic review of musculoskeletal pain among bariatric surgery patients: Implications for physical activity and exercise. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. 2014;10(1):161-70. doi:

Purim KSM, Titski ACK, Leite N. Dermatological aspects influencing the practice of physical activities by obese individuals. Fisioterapia em Movimento [online]. 2015;28(4):837-50. doi:

Ekkekakis P, Zenko Z. Escape from cognitivism: exercise as hedonic experience. In: M. Raab, P. Wyllemann, R. Seiler, Elbe AM, Hatzigeorgiadis A, editors. Sport and exercise psychology research: From theory to practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2016. p. 389–414.

Williams DM, Bohlen LC. Motivation for exercise: Reflective desire versus hedonic dread. APA Handbook of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 2: Exercise Psychology. APA handbooks in psychology series. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2019. p. 363-85.

Ekkekakis P, Parfitt G, Petruzzello SJ. The Pleasure and Displeasure People Feel When they Exercise at Different Intensities: Decennial Update and Progress towards a Tripartite Rationale for Exercise Intensity Prescription. Sports Medicine. 2011;41(8):641-71. doi: 10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000

Bartholomew JB, Lewis BP, Linder DE, Cook DB. Post-exercise analgesia: Replication and extension. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1996;14(4):329-34. doi: 10.1080/02640419608727718

Bartholomew JB, Morrison D, Ciccolo JT. Effects of acute exercise on mood and well-being in patients with major depressive disorder. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2005;37(12):2032-7. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000178101.78322.dd

Backhouse SH, Ekkekakis P, Biddle SJH, Foskett A, Williams C. Exercise makes people feel better but people are inactive: Paradox or artifact? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2007;29(4):498-517. doi: 10.1123/jsep.29.4.498

Tiidus PM. Skeletal muscle damage and repair: Human Kinetics; 2008.

España RA, Plahn S, Berridge CW. Circadian-dependent and circadian-independent behavioral actions of hypocretin/orexin. Brain Research. 2002;943(2):224-36. doi:

Furlong TM, Vianna DML, Liu L, Carrive P. Hypocretin /orexin contributes to the expression of some but not all forms of stress and arousal. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2009;30(8):1603-14. doi:

Belke TW, Garland T. A brief opportunity to run does not function as a reinforcer for mice selected for high daily wheel-running rates. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 2007;88(2):199-213. doi: 10.1901/jeab.2007.88-199

SantaBarbara NJ, Nosrat S, Whitworth JW, Ciccolo JT. Acute Psychological Effects of Resistance Exercise in Men With Symptoms of Muscle Dysmorphia: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2020. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000003615

Ballmann CG, McCullum MJ, Rogers RR, Marshall MR, Williams TD. Effects of preferred vs. nonpreferred music on resistance exercise performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2021;35(6):1650-5. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002981

Rhodes JS, Garland Jr T, Gammie SC. Patterns of brain activity associated with variation in voluntary wheel-running behavior. Behavioral neuroscience. 2003;117(6):1243. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.117.6.1243

Malisch JL, Breuner CW, Kolb EM, Wada H, Hannon RM, Chappell MA, et al. Behavioral Despair and Home-Cage Activity in Mice with Chronically Elevated Baseline Corticosterone Concentrations. Behavior Genetics. 2009;39(2):192-201. doi: 10.1007/s10519-008-9246-8

Keith SL, McLaughlin DJ, Anderson FA, Cardullo PA, Jones CE, Rohrer MJ, et al. Do graduated compression stockings and pneumatic boots have an additive effect on the peak velocity of venous blood flow? Archives of Surgery. 1992;127(6):727-30. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.1992.01420060107016

Pędziwiatr M, Mavrikis J, Witowski J, Adamos A, Major P, Nowakowski M, et al. Current status of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in gastrointestinal surgery. Medical Oncology. 2018;35(6):95. doi: 10.1007/s12032-018-1153-0

Adogwa O, Elsamadicy AA, Fialkoff JD, Cheng JS, Khalid SI, Karikari IO, et al. Early ambulation decreases length of hospital stay, perioperative complications, and improves functional outcomes in elderly patients undergoing surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. The Spine Journal. 2017;17(10):S111-S2. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002189

Bartholomew JB, Jowers EM. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. Preventive Medicine. 2011;52:S51-S4. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.017

Elbow P. Write first: Putting writing before reading is an effective approach to teaching and learning. Educational leadership. 2004;62(2):8-14.

Ramstetter CL, Murray R, Garner AS. The crucial role of recess in schools. Journal of School Health. 2010;80(11):517-26.