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Preprint / Version 2

The CRAVE and ARGE Scales for motivation states for physical activity and sedentarism

Brazilian Portuguese translation and single-item versions


  • Alberto Filgueiras School of Natural, Social and Sport Sciences, University of Gloucestershire
  • Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen Yale - New Haven Hospital
  • Daniel Boullosa Universidad de León
  • Rajita Sinha Yale School of Medicine
  • John B. Bartholomew The University of Texas at Austin
  • Paul McKee Duke University
  • Todd Gilson Northern Illinois University
  • Richard Keegan University of Canberra
  • Artur Viana Yale School of Medicine
  • Fabio Amador Bueno Connecticut Community Colleges Nursing Program
  • André Ricarte Medeiros Federal District Secretary of Education (SEEDF) of Brasilia
  • Sofia F. Militão-de-Leutério Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
  • Garrett I. Ash Yale School of Medicine



sprinting, Exercise, sedentary behavior, depression


According to the WANT model, motivation states for physical activity and sedentarism vary moment to moment. The CRAVE scale (Cravings for Rest and Volitional Energy Expenditure) was developed to assess wants and desires to move. The major aims of the current studies are to: translate and validate the scale in Brazilian Portuguese and determine the best single-item for Move and Rest subscales. Six bilingual speakers translated the scale from English to Brazilian Portuguese (named Anseios por Repouso e Gastos com Energia [ARGE]). The ARGE had excellent content validity coefficients across three dimensions (.89-.91), as determined by three independent, bilingual referees. 1,168 participants (mean age = 30.6, SD = 12.2; 71.6% female) from across Brazil completed an online version of the ARGE. An Exploratory Factor Analysis found two, very clear, oblique and inversely related factors (Move and Rest; GFI = 1.00, RMSR = .03). Reliability was good (Cronbach α’s: .93 and .92). Two models of the scale (10 versus 13 items) were compared with Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The previously validated version using 10 scored items (GFI = 1.00, RMSEA = .07, RMSR = .02) outperformed the version scored with 13 items. State anxiety and exercise behavior had small associations with Move and Rest (-.20 to .26). ARGE Move scores had high correspondence post-session for 9 women performing short Sprint Interval Training (sSIT; 6 sessions). Large effects were detected for changes in motivation states with sSIT, but due to the small sample size they were not significant. IRT analyses found that for the USA sample, “be physically active” and “be still” were the most representative items for Move and Rest, respectively, while for the Brazil sample they were “exert my muscles” and “be a couch potato”. Overall, it was found that: A) the ARGE scale demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, B) the original scoring (with 10 items) resulted in the best model, C) it had small associations with exercise behavior, and D) the sub-scales were reduced to single items that varied by country, indicating potential cultural differences in the concept of motivation states for physical activity.


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2022-11-21 — Updated on 2023-07-18