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Preprint / Version 1

Low prevalence of a priori power analyses in motor behavior research


  • Brad McKay
  • Abbey Corson
  • Mary-Anne Vinh
  • Gianna Jeyarajan
  • Chitrini Tandon
  • Hugh Brooks
  • Julie Hubley
  • Michael J Carter McMaster University



Metascience, Sample size planning, Positivity rates, Effect size


A priori power analyses can be used to ensure studies are unlikely to miss interesting effects. Recent metascience has suggested that kinesiology research may be underpowered and selectively reported. Here, we examined whether power analyses were currently being leveraged to ensure informative studies in the motor behavior research. We reviewed every article published in the Journal of Motor Learning and Development, the Journal of Motor Behavior, and Human Movement Science between January 2019 and June 2021. Our results revealed that power analyses were reported in 13% of all studies (k = 636) that tested a hypothesis. Yet, no study in the sample targeted the smallest effect size of interest. Most studies with a power analysis instead relied on estimates from previous studies, pilot studies, or benchmarks to determine the effect size of interest. Studies in this sample without a power analysis reported support for their main hypothesis 85% of the time, while studies with a power analysis found support 76% of the time. The median sample sizes were n = 17.5 without a power analysis and n = 16 with a power analysis, suggesting the typical study design in our sample was underpowered for all but the largest plausible effect size. At present, power analyses are not being used to optimize the informativeness of motor behavior studies; a trend that likely extends to other kinesiology subdisciplines. Adoption of this simple and widely recommended practice may greatly enhance the credibility of the motor behavior literature and kinesiology research in general.


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