Preprint / Version 1

The Effects of Adding High Intensity of Effort Resistance Training to Routine Care in Persons With Type II Diabetes

An Exploratory Randomised Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Study


  • Jürgen Giessing University of Koblenz-Landau
  • Björn Eichmann University of Koblenz-Landau
  • Wolfgang Kemmler Friedrich-Alexander University
  • Wayne L. Westcott Quincy College
  • Richard Winett Virginia Tech University
  • Kevin Busuttil Solent University
  • James Steele Solent University
  • James P. Fisher Solent University



body composition, fat mass, HbA1c, muscle mass, strength training, subjective wellbeing


Aims: The aims of this study were to consider the effects of supervised, low volume, high intensity of effort resistance training compared to continued routine care in persons with type II diabetes.

Methods: This study utilized a randomized comparative interrupted time-series design. All participants completed baseline testing (T0) and then participated in an educational training intervention regarding management of their diabetes. They were followed up for six months during which they received routine care before being retested (T1). Following this they were randomly allocated to either continue with routine care (CON), or to receive the high intensity of effort resistance training intervention (HIT). The intervention lasted for six months after which participants from both groups were retested again (T2). After this all participants were followed up for a further 12 months before being finally tested (T3). Data was available from 57 participants who completed the whole duration of the study (HIT, n = 29; CON, n = 28) for (i). anthropometric outcomes (body mass, waist circumference, and BMI), (ii). body composition outcomes (body fat mass, body fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat mass), (iii). water and blood outcomes (total body water, phase angle, HbA1c, and fasted blood glucose), and (iv). subjective wellbeing (WHO-5). Results: During the initial 6-month time epoch significant improvements were noted for waist circumference, body fat mass, muscle mass, body fat percentage, muscle mass percentage, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasted blood glucose, and subjective wellbeing. During the successive 6- and 18-month periods data suggest that many of these positive changes during the initial 6-months were negated or reversed for CON. In contrast participants engaging in HIT continued to show positive changes for waist circumference, body fat mass, muscle mass, body fat percentage, muscle percentage, and visceral fat. For blood markers and wellbeing, HbA1c continued to decrease, fasted blood glucose decreased, and subjective wellbeing continued to increase. These positive responses were still evidence and significantly different compared to CON after the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: The results of this exploratory pragmatic trial suggest that the addition of high intensity of effort RT alongside routine care can have a positive impact on a range of outcomes in type 2 diabetics having undergone prior routine care.


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