Assessment of the reporting quality of resistance training interventions in randomised controlled trials for lower limb tendinopathy
A systematic review
Keywords:Tendinopathy, Resistance training, Musculoskeletal, Rehabilitation, CERT
Objectives: 1. To describe what exercises and intervention variables are used in resistance training interventions in randomised controlled trials for lower limb tendinopathy 2. To assess completeness of reporting as assessed by the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) and the Toigo and Boutellier framework. 3. To assess the implementation of scientific resistance training principles. 4. To assess therapeutic quality of exercise interventions with the i-CONTENT tool.
Design: Systematic review
Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBase, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane library databases.
Elligibility criteria: Randomized controlled trials that reported using resistance exercises for lower limb tendinopathies.
Results: We included 109 RCTs. Eccentric heel drops were the most common exercise (43 studies), followed by isotonic heel raises (21), and single leg eccentric decline squats (18). Reporting of exercise descriptor items from the Toigo and Boutellier framework ranged from 0-13, with an average score of 9/13, and only 7 studies achieved a full 13/13. Reporting of items from the CERT ranged from 0-18, with an average score of 14/19. No study achieved a full 19/19, however 5 achieved 18/19. Scoring for resistance training principles ranged from 1-10, with only 11 studies achieving 10/10. Reporting across studies for the i-CONTENT tool ranged from 2-7, with an average score of 5 across included studies. A total of 19 studies achieved a full 7/7 score. Less than 50% of studies achieved an overall low risk of bias, highlighting the methodological concerns throughout studies
Conclusion: The reporting of exercise descriptors and intervention content was generally high across RCTs for lower limb tendinopathy, with most allowing exercise replication. However, reporting for some tendinopathies and content items such as adherence was poor, limiting optimal translation to clinical practice.
Minetto MA, Giannini A, McConnell R, Busso C, Torre G, Massazza G. Common musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly: The star triad. J Clin Med. 2020;9:10.
Albers IS, Zwerver J, Diercks RL, Dekker JH, Van den Akker-Scheek I. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a dutch general practice population: A cross sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:16.
Riel H, Lindstrom CF, Rathleff MS, Jensen MB, Olesen JL. Prevalence and incidence rate of lower-extremity tendinopathies in a danish general practice: A registry-based study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019;20:239.
Arnold MJ, Moody AL. Common running injuries: Evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. 2018;97:510-516.
Sprague AL, Smith AH, Knox P, Pohlig RT, Gravare Silbernagel K. Modifiable risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:1575-1585.
Janssen I, van der Worp H, Hensing S, Zwerver J. Investigating achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics. Res Sports Med. 2018;26:1-12.
Mc Auliffe S, Synott A, Casey H, Mc Creesh K, Purtill H, O'Sullivan K. Beyond the tendon: Experiences and perceptions of people with persistent achilles tendinopathy. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017;29:108-14.
Abat F, Alfredson H, Cucchiarini M, et al. Current trends in tendinopathy: Consensus of the ESSKA basic science committee. part I: Biology, biomechanics, anatomy and an exercise-based approach. J Exp Orthop. 2017;4:18.
Millar NL, Silbernagel KG, Thorborg K, et al. Tendinopathy. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021;7.
Steinmann S, Pfeifer CG, Brochhausen C, Docheva D. Spectrum of tendon pathologies: Triggers, trails and end-state. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21.
Girgis B, Duarte JA. Physical therapy for tendinopathy: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Phys Ther Sport. 2020;46:30-46.
Irby A, Gutierrez J, Chamberlin C, Thomas SJ, Rosen AB. Clinical management of tendinopathy: A systematic review of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of tendinopathy treatments. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30:1810-26.
Challoumas D, Clifford C, Kirwan P, Millar NL. How does surgery compare to sham surgery or physiotherapy as a treatment for tendinopathy? A systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2019;5
Clifford C, Challoumas D, Paul L, Syme G, Millar NL. Effectiveness of isometric exercise in the management of tendinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2020;6.
van der Vlist AC, Breda SJ, Oei EHG, Verhaar JAN, de Vos RJ. Clinical risk factors for achilles tendinopathy: A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:1352-61.
Vander Doelen T, Jelley W. Non-surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Sci Med Sport. 2020;23:118-24.
Lim HY, Wong SH. Effects of isometric, eccentric, or heavy slow resistance exercises on pain and function in individuals with patellar tendinopathy: A systematic review. Physiother Res Int. 2018;23.
Malliaras P, Barton CJ, Reeves ND, Langberg H. Achilles and patellar tendinopathy loading programmes: A systematic review comparing clinical outcomes and identifying potential mechanisms for effectiveness. Sports Med. 2013;43:267-86.
Murphy MC, Travers MJ, Chivers P, et al. Efficacy of heavy eccentric calf training for treating mid-portion achilles tendinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:1070-7.
Babatunde OO, Legha A, Littlewood C, et al. Comparative effectiveness of treatment options for plantar heel pain: A systematic review with network meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:182-94.
Silbernagel KG. Does one size fit all when it comes to exercise treatment for achilles tendinopathy? J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44:42-4.
Riel H, Jensen MB, Olesen JL, Vicenzino B, Rathleff MS. Self-dosed and pre-determined progressive heavy-slow resistance training have similar effects in people with plantar fasciopathy: A randomised trial. J Physiother. 2019;65:144-151.
Slade SC, Dionne CE, Underwood M, Buchbinder R. Consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT): Explanation and elaboration statement. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:1428-1437.
8. Hoogeboom TJ, Kousemaker MC, van Meeteren NL, et al. i-CONTENT tool for assessing therapeutic quality of exercise programs employed in randomised clinical trials. Br J Sports Med. 2021;55:1153-60.
Toigo M, Boutellier U. New fundamental resistance exercise determinants of molecular and cellular muscle adaptations. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:643-663.
81. Holden S, Rathleff MS, Jensen MB, Barton CJ. How can we implement exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain if we don't know what was prescribed? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52.
Goff AJ, Page WS, Clark NC. Reporting of acute programme variables and exercise descriptors in rehabilitation strength training for tibiofemoral joint soft tissue injury: A systematic review. Phys Ther Sport. 2018;34:227-237.
Major DH, Roe Y, Grotle M, et al. Content reporting of exercise interventions in rotator cuff disease trials: Results from application of the consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT). BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2019;5.
Christensen M, Zellers JA, Kjaer IL, Silbernagel KG, Rathleff MS. Resistance exercises in early functional rehabilitation for achilles tendon ruptures are poorly described: A scoping review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020;50:681-690.
Ross MH, Smith MD, Mellor R, Vicenzino B. Exercise for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials and clinical guidelines. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2018;4.
Naunton J, Street G, Littlewood C, Haines T, Malliaras P. Effectiveness of progressive and resisted and non-progressive or non-resisted exercise in rotator cuff related shoulder pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rehabil. 2020;34:1198-1216.
Auliffe SM, Korakakis V, Hilfiker R, Whiteley R, O'Sullivan K. Participant characteristics are poorly reported in exercise trials in tendinopathy: A systematic review. Phys Ther Sport. 2021;48:43-53.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339.
Beyer R, Kongsgaard M, Hougs Kjaer B, Ohlenschlaeger T, Kjaer M, Magnusson SP. Heavy slow resistance versus eccentric training as treatment for achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:1704-1711.
Kongsgaard M, Kovanen V, Aagaard P, et al. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19:790-802.
Stevens M, Tan CW. Effectiveness of the alfredson protocol compared with a lower repetition-volume protocol for midportion achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44:59-67.
Cunha, Ronaldo Alves da, et al. Comparative study of two protocols of eccentric exercise on knee pain and function in athletes with patellar tendinopathy: Randomized controlled study. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2012;18.
Kulig K, Reischl SF, Pomrantz AB, et al. Nonsurgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with orthoses and resistive exercise: A randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009;89:26-37.
Bahr R, Fossan B, Loken S, Engebretsen L. Surgical treatment compared with eccentric training for patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee). A randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:1689-1698.
Lee WC, Ng GY, Zhang ZJ, Malliaras P, Masci L, Fu SN. Changes on tendon stiffness and clinical outcomes in athletes are associated with patellar tendinopathy after eccentric exercise. Clin J Sport Med. 2020;30:25-32.
Frohm A, Saartok T, Halvorsen K, Renstrom P. Eccentric treatment for patellar tendinopathy: A prospective randomised short-term pilot study of two rehabilitation protocols. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41.
Silbernagel KG, Thomee R, Thomee P, Karlsson J. Eccentric overload training for patients with chronic achilles tendon pain--a randomised controlled study with reliability testing of the evaluation methods. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11:197-206.
Balius R, Alvarez G, Baro F, et al. A 3-arm randomized trial for achilles tendinopathy: Eccentric training, eccentric training plus a dietary supplement containing mucopolysaccharides, or passive stretching plus a dietary supplement containing mucopolysaccharides. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2016;78:1-7.
Mafi N, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Superior short-term results with eccentric calf muscle training compared to concentric training in a randomized prospective multicenter study on patients with chronic achilles tendinosis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9:42-47.
Norregaard J, Larsen CC, Bieler T, Langberg H. Eccentric exercise in treatment of achilles tendinopathy. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17:133-138.
Stasinopoulos D, Stasinopoulos I. Comparison of effects of exercise programme, pulsed ultrasound and transverse friction in the treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy. Clin Rehabil. 2004;18:347-352.
de Vos RJ, Weir A, Visser RJ, de Winter T, Tol JL. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion achilles tendinopathy: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41.
Johannsen FE, Herzog RB, Malmgaard-Clausen NM, Hoegberget-Kalisz M, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M. Corticosteroid injection is the best treatment in plantar fasciitis if combined with controlled training. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2019;27:5-12.
MacDonald, Kerry, et al. Effect of eccentric exercises at the knee with hip muscle strengthening to treat patellar tendinopathy in active duty military personnel: A randomized pilot. Orthopaedic Practice. 2019 31.
Gatz M, Betsch M, Dirrichs T, et al. Eccentric and isometric exercises in achilles tendinopathy evaluated by the VISA-A score and shear wave elastography. Sports Health. 2020;12:373-381.
Ganderton C, Semciw A, Cook J, Moreira E, Pizzari T. Gluteal loading versus sham exercises to improve pain and dysfunction in postmenopausal women with greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27:815-829.
Silbernagel KG, Thomee R, Eriksson BI, Karlsson J. Continued sports activity, using a pain-monitoring model, during rehabilitation in patients with achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled study. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:897-906.
Clifford C, Paul L, Syme G, Millar NL. Isometric versus isotonic exercise for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A randomised controlled pilot study. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2019;5:000558.
Stergioulas A, Stergioula M, Aarskog R, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM. Effects of low-level laser therapy and eccentric exercises in the treatment of recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:881-887.
Rompe JD, Furia J, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading compared with shock wave treatment for chronic insertional achilles tendinopathy. A randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:52-61.
Mellor R, Bennell K, Grimaldi A, et al. Education plus exercise versus corticosteroid injection use versus a wait and see approach on global outcome and pain from gluteal tendinopathy: Prospective, single blinded, randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:1464-1672.
van Ark M, Cook JL, Docking SI, et al. Do isometric and isotonic exercise programs reduce pain in athletes with patellar tendinopathy in-season? A randomised clinical trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19:702-706.
Roos EM, Engstrom M, Lagerquist A, Soderberg B. Clinical improvement after 6 weeks of eccentric exercise in patients with mid-portion achilles tendinopathy -- a randomized trial with 1-year follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14:286-295.
Chester R, Costa ML, Shepstone L, Cooper A, Donell ST. Eccentric calf muscle training compared with therapeutic ultrasound for chronic achilles tendon pain--a pilot study. Man Ther. 2008;13:484-491.
Rompe JD, Nafe B, Furia JP, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading, shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy of the main body of tendo achillis: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:374-383.
Thijs KM, Zwerver J, Backx FJ, et al. Effectiveness of shockwave treatment combined with eccentric training for patellar tendinopathy: A double-blinded randomized study. Clin J Sport Med. 2017;27:89-96.
HORSTMANN T, JUD HM, FRÖHLICH V, MÜNDERMANN A, GRAU S. Whole-body vibration versus eccentric training or a wait-and-see approach for chronic achilles tendinopathy: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2013;43:794-803.
Alfredson H, Pietila T, Jonsson P, Lorentzon R. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic achilles tendinosis. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:360-366.
Alvarez RG, Marini A, Schmitt C, Saltzman CL. Stage I and II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction treated by a structured nonoperative management protocol: An orthosis and exercise program. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27:2-8.
Kearney RS, Parsons N, Costa ML. Achilles tendinopathy management: A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing platelet-rich plasma injection with an eccentric loading programme. Bone Joint Res. 2013;2:227-232.
Tumilty S, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Baxter GD. Clinical effectiveness of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to eccentric exercise for the treatment of achilles' tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:733-739.
Yelland MJ, Sweeting KR, Lyftogt JA, Ng SK, Scuffham PA, Evans KA. Prolotherapy injections and eccentric loading exercises for painful achilles tendinosis: A randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:421-428.
McCormack JR, Underwood FB, Slaven EJ, Cappaert TA. Eccentric exercise versus eccentric exercise and soft tissue treatment (astym) in the management of insertional achilles tendinopathy. Sports Health. 2016;8:230-237
Tumilty S, Mani R, Baxter GD. Photobiomodulation and eccentric exercise for achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci. 2016;31:127-135.
Cannell LJ, Taunton JE, Clement DB, Smith C, Khan KM. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: Pilot study. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35:60-64.
Jonsson P, Alfredson H. Superior results with eccentric compared to concentric quadriceps training in patients with jumper's knee: A prospective randomised study. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:847-850.
Kedia M, Williams M, Jain L, et al. The effects of conventional physical therapy and eccentric strengthening for insertional achilles tendinopathy. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2014;9:488-497.
Herrington, Lee, & McCulloch, Rebecca. The role of eccentric training in the
management of Achilles tendinopathy: A pilot study. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2007;8.
Houck J, Neville C, Tome J, Flemister A. Randomized controlled trial comparing orthosis augmented by either stretching or stretching and strengthening for stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle Int. 2015;36:1006-1016.
Dimitrios S, Pantelis M, Kalliopi S. Comparing the effects of eccentric training with eccentric training and static stretching exercises in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A controlled clinical trial. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26:423-430.
Petersen W, Welp R, Rosenbaum D. Chronic achilles tendinopathy: A prospective randomized study comparing the therapeutic effect of eccentric training, the AirHeel brace, and a combination of both. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:1659-1667.
Steunebrink M, Zwerver J, Brandsema R, Groenenboom P, van den Akker-Scheek I, Weir A. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:34-39.
Rompe JD, Furia J, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading versus eccentric loading plus shock-wave treatment for midportion achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:463-470.
Young MA, Cook JL, Purdam CR, Kiss ZS, Alfredson H. Eccentric decline squat protocol offers superior results at 12 months compared with traditional eccentric protocol for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball players. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:102-105.
de Jonge S, de Vos RJ, Van Schie HT, Verhaar JA, Weir A, Tol JL. One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial on added splinting to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion achilles tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:673-677.
Praet SFE, Purdam CR, Welvaert M, et al. Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides combined with calf-strengthening exercises enhances function and reduces pain in achilles tendinopathy patients. Nutrients. 2019;11.
Rathleff MS, Molgaard CM, Fredberg U, et al. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:292-300.
Knobloch K, Schreibmueller L, Longo UG, Vogt PM. Eccentric exercises for the management of tendinopathy of the main body of the achilles tendon with or without the AirHeel brace. A randomized controlled trial. A: Effects on pain and microcirculation. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30:1685-1691.
Wheeler PC. The addition of a tension night splint to a structured home rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis does not lead to significant additional benefits in either pain, function or flexibility: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2017;3.
de Jonge S, de Vos RJ, Weir A, et al. One-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma treatment in chronic achilles tendinopathy: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1623-1629.
de Vos RJ, Weir A, van Schie HT, et al. Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:144-149.
Warden SJ, Metcalf BR, Kiss ZS, et al. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:467-471.
Visnes H, Hoksrud A, Cook J, Bahr R. No effect of eccentric training on jumper's knee in volleyball players during the competitive season: A randomized clinical trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2005;15:227-234.
van Ark M, Rio E, Cook J, et al. Clinical improvements are not explained by changes in tendon structure on ultrasound tissue characterization after an exercise program for patellar tendinopathy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;97:708-714.
Thompson G, Pearson JF. No attributable effects of PRP on greater trochanteric pain syndrome. N Z Med J. 2019;132:22-32.
Cacchio A, Rompe JD, Furia JP, Susi P, Santilli V, De Paulis F. Shockwave therapy for the treatment of chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy in professional athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:146-153.
Munteanu SE, Scott LA, Bonanno DR, et al. Effectiveness of customised foot orthoses for achilles tendinopathy: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:989-994.
van der Worp H, Zwerver J, Hamstra M, van den Akker-Scheek I, Diercks RL. No difference in effectiveness between focused and radial shockwave therapy for treating patellar tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:2026-2032.
Romero-Morales C, Martin-Llantino PJ, Calvo-Lobo C, et al. Effectiveness of eccentric exercise and a vibration or cryotherapy program in enhancing rectus abdominis muscle thickness and inter-rectus distance in patients with chronic mid-portion achilles tendinopathy: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2018;15:1764-1770.
Romero-Morales C, Martin-Llantino PJ, Calvo-Lobo C, et al. Vibration increases multifidus cross-sectional area versus cryotherapy added to chronic non-insertional achilles tendinopathy eccentric exercise. Phys Ther Sport. 2020;42:61-67.
Ryan M, Hartwell J, Fraser S, Newsham-West R, Taunton J. Comparison of a physiotherapy program versus dexamethasone injections for plantar fasciopathy in prolonged standing workers: A randomized clinical trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2014;24:211-127.
Riel H, Vicenzino B, Jensen MB, Olesen JL, Holden S, Rathleff MS. The effect of isometric exercise on pain in individuals with plantar fasciopathy: A randomized crossover trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018.
Koszalinski A, Flynn T, Hellman M, Cleland JA. Trigger point dry needling, manual therapy and exercise versus manual therapy and exercise for the management of achilles tendinopathy: A feasibility study. J Man Manip Ther. 2020;28:212-221.
Pearson J, Rowlands D, Highet R. Autologous blood injection to treat achilles tendinopathy? A randomized controlled trial. J Sport Rehab. 2012;21:218-224.
Wang CJ, Ko JY, Chan YS, Weng LH, Hsu SL. Extracorporeal shockwave for chronic patellar tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:972-978.
Notarnicola A, Maccagnano G, Tafuri S, Forcignano MI, Panella A, Moretti B. CHELT therapy in the treatment of chronic insertional achilles tendinopathy. Lasers Med Sci. 2014;29:1217-1225.
Dragoo JL, Wasterlain AS, Braun HJ, Nead KT. Platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for patellar tendinopathy: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:610-618.
Kaux JF, Bornheim S, Dardenne N, Deroisy R, Samson A, Roberjot M, Croisier JL. Comparison between platelet-rich plasma injections and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of patellar tendinopathies: a randomized trial. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. 2019;9:322-327.
Abat F, Sanchez-Sanchez JL, Martin-Nogueras AM, et al. Randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) versus conventional electro-physiotherapeutic treatment on patellar tendinopathy. J Exp Orthop. 2016;3:34.
Biernat R, Trzaskoma Z, Trzaskoma L, Czaprowski D. Rehabilitation protocol for patellar tendinopathy applied among 16- to 19-year old volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:43-52.
Rio E, Kidgell D, Purdam C, et al. Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:1277-1283.
Rio E, van Ark M, Docking S, et al. Isometric contractions are more analgesic than isotonic contractions for patellar tendon pain: An in-season randomized clinical trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2017;27:253-259.
Choudhary A, Sahu S, Vasudeva A, et al. Comparing effectiveness of combination of collagen peptide type-1, low molecular weight chondroitin sulphate, sodium hyaluronate, and vitamin-C versus oral diclofenac sodium in achilles tendinopathy: A prospective randomized control trial. Cureus. 2021;13:19737.
Cowan RM, Ganderton CL, Cook J, Semciw AI, Long DM, Pizzari T. Does menopausal hormone therapy, exercise, or both improve pain and function in postmenopausal women with greater trochanteric pain syndrome? A 2 x 2 factorial randomized clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2021.
Habets B, van Cingel REH, Backx FJG, van Elten HJ, Zuithoff P, Huisstede BMA. No difference in clinical effects when comparing alfredson eccentric and silbernagel combined concentric-eccentric loading in achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Orthop J Sports Med. 2021;9.
Ruffino D, Malliaras P, Marchegiani S, Campana V. Inertial flywheel vs heavy slow resistance training among athletes with patellar tendinopathy: A randomised trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2021;52:30-37.
Olesen JL, Hansen M, Turtumoygard IF, et al. No treatment benefits of local administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 in addition to heavy slow resistance training in tendinopathic human patellar tendons: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2021;49:2361-2370.
Hasani F, Haines T, Munteanu SE, Schoch P, Vicenzino B, Malliaras P. LOAD-intensity and time-under-tension of exercises for men who have achilles tendinopathy (the LOADIT trial): A randomised feasibility trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2021;13:57.
Mansur NSB, Matsunaga FT, Carrazzone OL, et al. Shockwave therapy plus eccentric exercises versus isolated eccentric exercises for achilles insertional tendinopathy: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021;103:1295-1302.
Sprague AL, Couppe C, Pohlig RT, Snyder-Mackler L, Silbernagel KG. Pain-guided activity modification during treatment for patellar tendinopathy: A feasibility and pilot randomized clinical trial. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2021;7.
Agergaard AS, Svensson RB, Malmgaard-Clausen NM, et al. Clinical outcomes, structure, and function improve with both heavy and moderate loads in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2021;49:982-993.
Lopez-Royo MP, Rios-Diaz J, Galan-Diaz RM, Herrero P, Gomez-Trullen EM. A comparative study of treatment interventions for patellar tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2021;102:967-975.
Abdelkader NA, Helmy MNK, Fayaz NA, Saweeres ESB. Short- and intermediate-term results of extracorporeal shockwave therapy for noninsertional achilles tendinopathy. Foot Ankle Int. 2021;42:788-797.
van der Vlist AC, van Oosterom RF, van Veldhoven PLJ, et al. Effectiveness of a high volume injection as treatment for chronic achilles tendinopathy: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2020;370.
Breda SJ, Oei EHG, Zwerver J, et al. Effectiveness of progressive tendon-loading exercise therapy in patients with patellar tendinopathy: A randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2021;55:501-509.
Rabusin CL, Menz HB, McClelland JA, et al. Efficacy of heel lifts versus calf muscle eccentric exercise for mid-portion achilles tendinopathy (HEALTHY): A randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2021;55:486-492.
Solomons L, Lee JJY, Bruce M, White LD, Scott A. Intramuscular stimulation vs sham needling for the treatment of chronic midportion achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled clinical trial. PLoS One. 2020;15.
Ramon S, Russo S, Santoboni F, et al. Focused shockwave treatment for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020;102:1305-1311.
Scott A, LaPrade RF, Harmon KG, et al. Platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial of leukocyte-rich PRP or leukocyte-poor PRP versus saline. Am J Sports Med. 2019;47:1654-1661.
Stefansson SH, Brandsson S, Langberg H, Arnason A. Using pressure massage for achilles tendinopathy: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing a novel treatment versus an eccentric exercise protocol. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7.
Boesen AP, Hansen R, Boesen MI, Malliaras P, Langberg H. Effect of high-volume injection, platelet-rich plasma, and sham treatment in chronic midportion achilles tendinopathy: A randomized double-blinded prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:2034-2043.
Chesterton LS, Thomas MJ, Hendry G, et al. Self-management advice, exercise and foot orthoses for plantar heel pain: The TREADON pilot and feasibility randomised trial. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2021;92.
Rasenberg N, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Fuit L, et al. Custom insoles versus sham and GP-led usual care in patients with plantar heel pain: Results of the STAP-study - a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2021;55:272-278
Johannsen F, Konradsen L, Herzog R, Krogsgaard MR. Endoscopic fasciotomy for plantar fasciitis provides superior results when compared to a controlled non-operative treatment protocol: A randomized controlled trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2020;28:3301-3308.
Thong-On S, Bovonsunthonchai S, Vachalathiti R, Intiravoranont W, Suwannarat S, Smith R. Effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on the temporospatial gait parameters in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial. Ann Rehabil Med. 2019;43:662-676.
Cil ET, Sayli U, Subasi F. Outpatient vs home management protocol results for plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2019;40:1295-1303.
Kamonseki DH, Goncalves GA, Yi LC, Junior IL. Effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening exercises for the foot and hip in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled single-blind clinical trial. Man Ther. 2016;23:76-82.
Brown R, Orchard J, Kinchington M, Hooper A, Nalder G. Aprotinin in the management of achilles tendinopathy: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:275-279.
Nisen-Vertommen SL, Taunton JE, Clement DB, Mosher RE. THE EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC VERSUS CONCENTRIC EXERCISE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ACHILLES TENDONITIS. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1992;2:109-113.
Jensen K, Di Fabio RP. Evaluation of eccentric exercise in treatment of patellar tendinitis. Phys Ther. 1989;69:211-216.
Yu J, Park D, Lee G. Effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in male patients with achilles tendinopathy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92:68-76.
Wheeler PC, Dudson C, Calver R, Goodall D, Gregory K, Singh H, Boyd KT. Three Sessions of Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Gives No Additional Benefit Over “Minimal-Dose” Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Patients With Chronic Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2022;1;32:7-18.
Zhang BM, Zhong LW, Xu SW, Jiang HR, Shen J. Acupuncture for chronic achilles tendnopathy: A randomized controlled study. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:900-904.
Bell KJ, Fulcher ML, Rowlands DS, Kerse N. Impact of autologous blood injections in treatment of mid-portion achilles tendinopathy: Double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013;346:2310.
Pietrosimone LS, Blackburn JT, Wikstrom EA, et al. Landing biomechanics are not immediately altered by a single-dose patellar tendon isometric exercise protocol in male athletes with patellar tendinopathy: A single-blinded randomized cross-over trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2020;46:177-185.
Holden S, Lyng K, Graven-Nielsen T, et al. Isometric exercise and pain in patellar tendinopathy: A randomized crossover trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2020;23:208-214.
Burton I, McCormack A. The implementation of resistance training principles in exercise interventions for lower limb tendinopathy: A systematic review. Phys Ther Sport. 2021;50:97-113.
Fairman CM, Hyde PN, Focht BC. Resistance training interventions across the cancer control continuum: A systematic review of the implementation of resistance training principles. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:677-685
Minshull C, Gleeson N. Considerations of the principles of resistance training in exercise studies for the management of knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98:1842-1851.
Bohm S, Mersmann F, Arampatzis A. Human tendon adaptation in response to mechanical loading: A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise intervention studies on healthy adults. Sports Med Open. 2015;1:7.
Breed R, Opar D, Timmins R, Maniar N, Banyard H, Hickey J. Poor reporting of exercise interventions for hamstring strain injury rehabilitation: A scoping review of reporting quality and content in contemporary applied research. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2021;1-32.
Charlton PC, Drew MK, Mentiplay BF, Grimaldi A, Clark RA. Exercise interventions for the prevention and treatment of groin pain and injury in athletes: A critical and systematic review. Sports Med. 2017;47:2011-2026.
Bartholdy C, Nielsen SM, Warming S, Hunter DJ, Christensen R, Henriksen M. Poor replicability of recommended exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis: A descriptive analysis of evidence informing current guidelines and recommendations. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2019;27:3-22.
O'Neil J, McEwen D, Del Bel MJ, et al. Assessment of the content reporting for therapeutic exercise interventions among existing randomized controlled trials on knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rehabil. 2018;32:980-984.
Jo D, Del Bel MJ, McEwen D, et al. A study of the description of exercise programs evaluated in randomized controlled trials involving people with fibromyalgia using different reporting tools, and validity of the tools related to pain relief. Clin Rehabil. 2019;33:557-563.
Kattackal TR, Cavallo S, Brosseau L, et al. Assessing the reporting quality of physical activity programs in randomized controlled trials for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis using three standardized assessment tools. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2020;18:41.
O'Neil J, McEwen D, Kang BK, et al. Intervention reporting and dissemination of information for the management of hand osteoarthritis. J Hand Ther. 2021;34:362-368.
Charette M, Berube ME, Brooks K, O'Neil J, Brosseau L, McLean L. How well do published randomized controlled trials on pelvic floor muscle training interventions for urinary incontinence describe the details of the intervention? A review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2020;39:35-44.
Giagio S, Innocenti T, Salvioli S, et al. Completeness of exercise reporting among randomized controlled trials on pelvic floor muscle training for women with pelvic organ prolapse: A systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2021;40:1424-1432.
Davidson SRE, Kamper SJ, Haskins R, et al. Exercise interventions for low back pain are poorly reported: A systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2021;139:279-286.
Barros BS, Imoto AM, O'Neil J, et al. The management of lower back pain using pilates method: Assessment of content exercise reporting in RCTs. Disabil Rehabil. 2020:1-9.
Vlok A, van Dyk N, Coetzee D, Grindem H. Exercise descriptors that determine muscle strength gains are missing from reported anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction rehabilitation programs: A scoping review of 117 exercises in 41 studies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2021:1-40.
Reiman MP, Boyd J, Ingel N, Reichert A, Westhoven M, Peters S. There is limited and inconsistent reporting of postoperative rehabilitation for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: A scoping review of 169 studies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020;50:252-258.
Burgess LC, Wainwright TW, James KA, von Heideken J, Iversen MD. The quality of intervention reporting in trials of therapeutic exercise for hip osteoarthritis: A secondary analysis of a systematic review. Trials. 2021;22:388.
Barton CJ, De Oliveira Silva D, Morton S, et al. REPORT-PFP: A consensus from the international patellofemoral research network to improve REPORTing of quantitative PatelloFemoral pain studies. Br J Sports Med. 2021;55(20):1135-43.
Holden S, Barton CJ. 'What should I prescribe?': Time to improve reporting of resistance training programmes to ensure accurate translation and implementation. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:264-265.